A student’s initial learning in school mathematics must center on the concept of quantity.  This is a foundational concept that is often taken for granted.  Students should be able to identify and compare various quantities using physical sets, pictures, and abstract symbols.  The connections between these various representations is developed further as students progress from an initial understanding of cardinality, to establishing a consistent count sequence through magnitude comparison, to applying the count sequence to establish one to one correspondence to determine the cardinality of sets that are not easily recognizable.