- Algorithms and Programming
1B-AP-08 Compare and refine multiple algorithms for the same task and determine which is the most appropriate. (P6.3, P3.3)
Different algorithms can achieve the same result, though sometimes one algorithm might be most appropriate for a specific situation. Students should be able to look at different ways to solve the same task and decide which would be the best solution. For example, students could use a map and plan multiple algorithms to get from one point to another. They could look at routes suggested by mapping software and change the route to something that would be better, based on which route is shortest or fastest or would avoid a problem. Students might compare algorithms that describe how to get ready for school. Another example might be to write different algorithms to draw a regular polygon and determine which algorithm would be the easiest to modify or repurpose to draw a different polygon.
1B-AP-09 Create programs that use variables to store and modify data. (P5.2)
Variables are used to store and modify data. At this level, understanding how to use variables is sufficient. For example, students may use mathematical operations to add to the score of a game or subtract from the number of lives available in a game. The use of a variable as a countdown timer is another example.
1B-AP-10 Create programs that include sequences, events, loops, and conditionals. (P5.2)
Control structures specify the order (sequence) in which instructions are executed within a program and can be combined to support the creation of more complex programs. Events allow portions of a program to run based on a specific action. For example, students could write a program to explain the water cycle and when a specific component is clicked (event), the program would show information about that part of the water cycle. Conditionals allow for the execution of a portion of code in a program when a certain condition is true. For example, students could write a math game that asks multiplication fact questions and then uses a conditional to check whether or not the answer that was entered is correct. Loops allow for the repetition of a sequence of code multiple times. For example, in a program that produces an animation about a famous historical character, students could use a loop to have the character walk across the screen as they introduce themselves.
1B-AP-11 Decompose (break down) problems into smaller, manageable subproblems to facilitate the program development process. (P3.2)
Decomposition is the act of breaking down tasks into simpler tasks. For example, students could create an animation by separating a story into different scenes. For each scene, they would select a background, place characters, and program actions.
1B-AP-12 Modify, remix, or incorporate portions of an existing program into one's own work, to develop something new or add more advanced features. (P5.3)
Programs can be broken down into smaller parts, which can be incorporated into new or existing programs. For example, students could modify prewritten code from a single-player game to create a two-player game with slightly different rules, remix and add another scene to an animated story, use code to make a ball bounce from another program in a new basketball game, or modify an image created by another student.
1B-AP-13 Use an iterative process to plan the development of a program by including others' perspectives and considering user preferences. (P1.1, P5.1)
Planning is an important part of the iterative process of program development. Students outline key features, time and resource constraints, and user expectations. Students should document the plan as, for example, a storyboard, flowchart, pseudocode, or story map.
1B-AP-14 Observe intellectual property rights and give appropriate attribution when creating or remixing programs. (P7.3)
Intellectual property rights can vary by country but copyright laws give the creator of a work a set of rights that prevents others from copying the work and using it in ways that they may not like. Students should identify instances of remixing, when ideas are borrowed and iterated upon, and credit the original creator. Students should also consider common licenses that place limitations or restrictions on the use of computational artifacts, such as images and music downloaded from the Internet. At this stage, attribution should be written in the format required by the teacher and should always be included on any programs shared online.
1B-AP-15 Test and debug (identify and fix errors) a program or algorithm to ensure it runs as intended. (P6.1, P6.2)
As students develop programs they should continuously test those programs to see that they do what was expected and fix (debug), any errors. Students should also be able to successfully debug simple errors in programs created by others.
1B-AP-16 Take on varying roles, with teacher guidance, when collaborating with peers during the design, implementation, and review stages of program development. (P2.2)
Collaborative computing is the process of performing a computational task by working in pairs or on teams. Because it involves asking for the contributions and feedback of others, effective collaboration can lead to better outcomes than working independently. Students should take turns in different roles during program development, such as note taker, facilitator, program tester, or “driver” of the computer.
1B-AP-17 Describe choices made during program development using code comments, presentations, and demonstrations. (P7.2)
People communicate about their code to help others understand and use their programs. Another purpose of communicating one's design choices is to show an understanding of one's work. These explanations could manifest themselves as in-line code comments for collaborators and assessors, or as part of a summative presentation, such as a code walk-through or coding journal.
Related Resources and Toolkits
- Swift Playgrounds (App)
Physical Computing Extensions
- Makey Makey
- Dash and Dot