Please use the comments for discussion and to contribute your reviews, perspective and thoughts. Your colleagues and other visitors will appreciate it! If you need help, please contact us. Requests for help will not be answered in comments.
>> The broadcast is now starting.
All attendees are in listen only mode.
>> Hi, I would like to welcome you to today's webinar, Progress Monitoring for Behavior.
My name is Diane Funstand [Assumed Spelling], and I'm an Educational Consultant
at the PaTTAN Office in King of Prussia.
This webinar is part of a series of webinars we have been providing on a monthly basis,
with the topic being Progress Monitoring for Students with IEPs.
All of the sessions have been recorded and are archived as videos on the PaTTAN website,
so we invite you to go in and take a look at those.
Today's session, also, will be recorded, and will be available
as a video probably in a few weeks.
Hopefully, you can tell by looking
at your screen how you can access the handouts for today's presentation.
You would go to the PaTTAN website, click on the tab that says training,
and then click on calendar and go to today's date.
If you have questions please feel free to type them
into the chat box that you see on your screen.
I would like to introduce our presenter, Linda Franchock [Assumed Spelling],
who is a Behavior Consultant at our PaTTAN Office in Harrisburg.
Linda is a Board certified Behavior Analyst with an extensive background in behavior.
So I'm going to turn the presentation over now to Linda.
>> Hi, everyone.
Thanks for joining me today.
It's a pleasure to be speaking on this topic today.
Before we get started, I'll let you review the PaTTAN mission.
The mission of PaTTAN is to support the efforts and initiatives of the Bureau
of Special Education and to build the capacity of the local education agencies
to serve students who receive special education services.
Our goal for each child is to ensure the IEP Teams begin with the general education setting
with the use of supplementary agency services before considering a more
Our objectives for today are to learn the importance of progress monitoring
and database decision making, writing the behavior goals
and selecting the tools for measuring goals.
Through my experience in the field I've found that there are two critical areas
that lay the foundation for progress monitoring that are weak in many behavior plans.
One is clearly defined replacement behavior, and the other is a comprehensive plan
for teaching that replacement behavior.
These two items are critical to progress monitoring
because what you're monitoring is the student's progress on that replacement behavior,
and how you monitor over time is directly linked to your teaching procedures and protocols.
If the goals aren't appropriately formulated
to reflect those two areas this greatly reduces the reliability of the data collected
for future decision making and planning and ultimately the student's success.
So, therefore, we want to be effective in progress monitoring,
and we want to increase the reliability of our data we collect
for that decision making process.
So we'll discuss guidelines for formulating your goals in this presentation.
As we move forward note that you'll see on my examples and throughout the slides
that it says examples only, so please note that all examples that are in the presentation or,
for example, purposes for this training only.
When I say behavior plan it's just easier to say that.
I really am speaking to the positive behavior support plan, and feel free to go along with me
through developing the goal or you have a behavior in mind that you've selected
and you're thinking about right now, if you want to kind of have it in front of you
and jot something down about it as we go,
it might help you develop it as we go through the training.
I will warn you I speak fast, not intentionally, but I just do and by nature,
so if I'm going too quickly I'll try to monitor myself for that, but sometimes hard to do.
All right, so what is progress monitoring?
Well, progress monitoring is a scientifically based, active and ongoing process,
and involves systematic planning and the evaluation of data by the team and the teacher.
The planning involves decisions about who, what, where, when, how the data is linked
to the behavior goal will be collected, as well as how data will be displayed and shared.
Planning also includes determining the criteria for making decisions based
on the continual evaluation of the data.
This planning process provides a system for determining the effectiveness
of your interventions based on your behavior goal to inform those future decisions.
So imagine being in a meeting where you're pouring through pages and pages of scores
and tallies regarding your students' progress, trying to discern the accumulated results
over time, and then trying to share that and talk that through in an IEP meeting?
You've probably been at some of those meetings.
It's a very laborious process, and it's really not a very effective system
for making decisions.
So proper planning for progress monitoring really allows you to present and share data
through graphs or charts or diagrams that can show patterns of learning over time.
This makes the decision making process more effective and efficient,
especially when you're sharing with information across teams and especially with parents.
So we'll cover some examples of that toward the end of the webinar.
The systematic approach really promotes more informed decision making.
Your responses to intervention become timely, it's not that wait and see process.
Decisions area is concise because they're based on pre-established goals and they're relevant
because it's what the student needs for success at school.
This process reduces making decision based on really how you think and feel about things
on the student's progress and instead focuses on those facts that the data provides over time.
Therefore, that leads you to more accelerated opportunities of learning for the student.
Additionally, it demonstrates progress by the student, that demonstrated progress
by the student really raises teacher expectations and it reinforces that use
of the planning process because you're seeing what students do.
A significant volume research conducted over the past 30 years has shown
that this method is a reliable and valid predictor of subsequent performance
on a variety of outcome measures.
Research also supports that when teachers use progress monitoring students learn more,
teacher decision making improves, and students really become more aware
of their own performance.
Progress monitoring is a critically important process for improving outcomes of all students,
including students with disabilities.
It's about the effectiveness of our intervention,
is what we're doing really working?
So according to IDEA and state regulations progress monitoring procedures must be
established for each IEP goal.
The IEP must contain descriptions of how progress will be measured,
when periodic reports will be provided, as well.
The goal of the periodic assessment is to provide access
to the general education curriculums and settings.
If behavior impedes learning it directly affects the student's access.
Progress monitoring provides direct links between assessment and the structural processes.
It's a method of informative and summary assessment,
used to measure progress toward the achievement of a goal.
It's formative because we're making decisions based on the data that we're gathering,
and then we're working through those decisions as we gather data over time.
It allows you to communicate progress more effectively, again, and efficiently,
as I've already stated, with professionals clearly because you're focusing on those facts
and not information that's really not relevant or helpful in improving student outcomes.
So I've explained earlier, we're seeing progress monitoring breakdown in the formulation
of the behavior goals, so I wanted to take some time to kind
of review formulating your behavior goal because behavior is part of the goal,
it's one of the conditions that we're writing.
Again, this greatly increases the reliability of your data collected for decision making
and it lays that foundation for behavior change.
So I'm going to use this mock example, that you see here, to kind of explain the process.
So I'm going to start at the point where you've already completed a functional behavioral
assessment, and you've determined
that the student's behavior is impeding learning or the learning of others.
This would be reflected in your present levels portion of your IEP.
You would have the data to support your functional assessment,
similar to my example here.
This example of the graphing, so this would be my functional assessment data
to show the current student's behavior.
SO, as you can see, it shows the frequency or number of episodes of problem behavior today,
you can see that in blue is frequency and red is duration.
And you can see that these are really increasing over time, both in duration
and frequency, so both are going up.
This isn't going up as quickly as the duration is.
So the episodes are occurring on an average of almost nine times a day and lasting
on the average about 35 minutes, and the team has analyzed the data and determined
that the problem behavior occurs when students ask to transition
from a preferred to a non-preferred activity.
The behavior concern that they're targeting for change was described
as verbal refusals, yelling and hitting staff.
So the team now needs to determine the replacement behavior that's going to be taught
and practiced, and that will replace the current behavior concern.
Basically, what do we want the student to do instead?
So right behavior plans for the replacement behaviors stated something
like we'll use his personal space or will not annoy others or will understand how others feel.
And really these aren't clearly defined replacement behaviors,
so it becomes problematic from the start.
Teachers can frequently state what they don't want students to do,
but writing that replacement behavior can really be challenging.
Also, the replacement behavior can be stated, but no formal process for teaching
and practicing the replacement behavior is developed,
so there's no formal step-by-step determination in that plan of what's going
to happen, when and how, and by whom.
And these events really severely compromise progress monitoring
and the database decision making, and really are a recipe for poor student outcomes.
So I'm going to take a few minutes to review guidelines for determining replacement behaviors
as part of this webinar since it really directly links to progress monitoring
and this tends to be a problematic area.
So let's take a look at some criteria for formulating your behavioral goal.
So, number one, you want to identify and state your behavior concerns,
so I'm going to take it clear back to the behavior concern, and observable
and measureable terms, because if you don't have this right from the beginning your plan
and everything you do after this progress monitoring will not occur
with any reliability or, at all, in some cases.
So this should have been done during your functional assessment, when you collected data
to determine need, but make sure you have the student's behavior objectively defined
so that you can formulate the appropriate replacement behavior
because these two things are closely related.
Behaviors, like frustrated or if you stayed angry or acts up, mad or disrespectful,
now these are all terms we hear and we use them, but they don't provide that objectiveness
that we need, they're more general, they provide some general information
about the student behavior, but they're really subjective and we want
to avoid those for a lot of reasons.
One is it can lead to false or circular explanations, for example,
the student acts up because he has a ADD, therefore, he ADD and he acts up.
This doesn't really lead us to looking at strategies and interventions,
that instead lead us to focusing on the student's strengths.
So we want to be careful we're looking at the student strengths
and are focusing on those problem areas.
It's really subjective and can really negatively impact the student, as well.
We want to be specific to that progress monitoring piece,
subjective terms really can't be reliably observed or measured.
If I sent two people out to collect data on I'll say frustrated and I ask them to collect it
on the same student and I sent both observers out, it would be highly unlikely
that I'd get reliable data back because what does frustrated look like?
It might be timed differently by each observer, and this is a common error in data collection.
So first we want to make sure that you've clearly defined the behavior for change
because this directly affects defining the replacement behavior
and then your progress monitoring.
So let's look at this chart a little more closely?
And basically what we have here is we have three columns, and the first one is kind
of the subjective description, and we're going to try to improve it, and then we're going
to look at how we can even make it better than that.
And, again, this is for training purposes only.
Our first one is Sam gets frustrated and, again, what is frustrated?
That's going to look different to different people.
We could improve it by saying Sam cries and tantrum,
but again what does a tantrum look like?
That's usually a set of behaviors.
So to make it even more observable and measureable we could say Sam screams,
kicks his feet, pounds the desk with both fists, and tears up instructional materials.
That could be clearly and easily observed by anyone who was taking data on that student.
So let's look at our next example here.
Mary causes disruptions during instruction.
Okay, but what is the disruption, again, what does that look like?
How about Mary blurts out inappropriate comments during instruction?
Well, again, what might be inappropriate to one person may not be inappropriate to another.
How about Mary interrupts the teacher to talk excessively about unrelated topics
or insults peers by making derogatory comments about their appearance during class?
I think a lot of us could easily pick out these things and select them out of Mary's behavior
in a classroom, so you increase the reliability when you make it more objective in this way.
Rachel acts up during transitions.
Again, what does act up look like?
Rachel argues and hits during transitions.
It's better, but then maybe we could even define this more.
Rachel makes verbal refusals, such as no, you can't make me, I won't stop when asked
to transition and she hits the adults with an open hand in an attempt to end the activities.
So, again, these are really easy to pick out when you're collecting data.
So what makes this last column better is really that you -- there's behaviors clearly observable
and measureable, and they would have wide agreement between a great many observers.
Okay, so now let's -- now that we've clearly defined the behavior targeted for change,
let's review how to determine the replacement behavior
or basically what do you want this student to do instead?
Just as you did for the targeted problem behavior, you will also identify and state
in observable and measureable terms the replacement behavior.
So I am going to provide some of the criteria for that to guide this process
because frequently behavior goals do not align with the problem behavior to be eliminated
and so you've got a lot of cross-behavior plans.
And, again, this greatly reduces the effectiveness of the interventions,
the reliability of the data, measuring what you're supposed to be measuring,
and ultimately the student's success.
These pieces are critical for progress monitoring and database decision making,
so you want them to be very concise.
So let's look at some criteria here.
Make sure my mouth is not in the way.
The replacement behavior needs to match the function of the problem behavior,
so let's use the example of attention.
The student swears to get the teacher's attention
versus the student states the teacher's name to get her attention.
So that would be an appropriate replacement behavior,
and it also serves the same function, to get the teacher's attention.
So that would be an example of matching function.
Next, the replacement behavior needs to compete with the problem behavior, for example,
if the student runs around the room to avoid a task,
a competing behavior would be the students stays seated at the desk to complete the task.
If he's seated at the desk he can't at the same time be running
around the room, so those two behaviors compete.
What is most challenging, for example, could be when a student is yelling a teacher's name,
you could also be teaching her to raise her hand, which is a replacement behavior,
but you could also raise your hand and still be yelling at the same time
or blurting out the teacher's name.
So there are some instances where it's hard to find that competing behavior that's appropriate,
but you still want to look for that in your criteria.
Next, make sure it's a realistic and attainable goal.
The student must be capable of doing that replacement behavior.
Be sure there's no physical limitation, for example,
say you determine that the student is going to raise his hand,
but physically the student can't reach past the chest level with their hand.
That's going to be really effortful and hard for the student and probably not very effective.
This wouldn't be really a realistic or highly likely attainable goal,
due to the effort the student is highly likely not to do it.
You need to really pay attention to if there are any physical limitations.
Another example would be I sometimes find that developmental ranges are not appropriate,
so they're asking the student to wait for three seconds, when they can't wait for 15 minutes --
or to wait for 15 minutes when the student can't wait for three seconds.
So you need to consider what your peers do, kind of look at those behaviors
and see if there's something that the typical developing peer is doing,
and I'm going to speak more to that in a minute.
And, finally, feasible, consider how you'll implement.
If there is a plan that's less complex you want to consider that,
if it's going to have similar results, especially if you don't have the staffing,
and this kind of speaks to staffing, just to think about it a little bit.
It's more likely to get implemented if you have the support to do that, so it doesn't have
to be a complex thing that you're doing with behavior here or the behavior
that you're choosing to teach the student.
Sometimes very simple things can be very effective for students.
Once you determine the replacement behavior then you're going to write it
in objective measureable terms, just as you did for the behavior concern.
Again, this is going to allow for that observing across people.
Okay, so let's take a look at some examples here of replacement behaviors.
So our problem behavior is the student constantly interrupts during instruction
with off topic comments to gain the teacher's attention.
So our replacement behavior for this student will be that the student will raise his hand
to gain the teacher's attention and to make on topic comments during instruction.
And seeing this example we've been -- we have a competing and an appropriate behavior
of raising the hand, if you're raising the hand you're not interrupting.
Again, that's a hard one, it's not competing, but it's appropriate,
and if you are on topic then you're not making off topic comments, so that is competing,
and they both serve the same function, which is attention.
On number two, when a task demand is placed the student engages in biting,
dropping to the floor, and hitting to escape a task.
A replacement behavior here possibly could be that the student will comply
with teacher requests, so if you're complying then you're not engaging in problem behavior,
so those compete, within five seconds of the task in the absence of problem behavior.
So, again, these are both for escape, so they serve the same function
and they are competing behaviors.
The student teases and mocks peers to gain their attention and interactions.
A replacement behavior for that could be student will approach, initiate and engage
in social attention across peers
and environments using gestures and words that are pleasant.
So if I'm using gestures and words that are pleasant that competes with teasing
and mocking behavior, and it's also the same function, which is to gain attention.
So, hopefully, you get the idea on this.
Let me see if there's anything else here to tell you.
Okay, so now that you have an objective and measureable replacement behavior developed,
the next step is to determine the expected level of performance by the end of year.
And really this is no different than you're looking at your typical IEP statement component,
so we kind of just covered that behavior, your time condition learner behavior criterion.
We've just talked in detail about the behavior, so we're going to move now to looking
at the replacement behavior, that year end performance goal.
The teacher should really start by reviewing your present level performance,
that's where you want to start.
So when writing an IEP goal, the annual goal takes the student from his or her present levels
of behavior performance to the level of performance expected by the end of the year.
So that's your starting point, and kind of ask yourself, okay, what's the current level
of performance for this behavior, and then where do you want to be at the end of the year.
Again, you know, there are a lot of other components that we're going to cover
to help us make that determination, so think of this goal as kind of three parts.
We've identified the behavior to change, we're going to state the anticipated
and a reasonable change to the behavior from baseline, that's our replacement behavior,
and now we're stating the amount of growth or level of proficiency that can be measured.
So if you were writing this it would look something like this.
Again, this is an example.
When given an instructional direction by staff, Rachel will comply with the instructions
without hitting or making verbal refusals for all staff members in the classroom
across a variety of settings 100% of the time.
So the color coding is kind of to help you line up what pieces of that or parts
of that goal we're looking at in this example.
Okay, there's really no hard and fast rule for determining the performance criteria.
It's going to be highly individualized,
but remember if this is a behavior that's impeding learning or the learning of others
or it's serious in nature, for example, self-injurious or physical or hurting others,
it's critical that we mitigate that behavior as soon as possible.
Your comprehensive, and I use the word comprehensive here purposefully,
it should be a comprehensive behavior plan, will guide this process, as well,
but how quickly that student responds
to the intervention really depends on a lot of variables.
Developing strategies and teaching procedures for the replacement behavior in conjunction
with developing this IEP goal and those timelines is critical because that's going
to lead you to effective progress monitoring.
You don't want to do the reverse, that can be really problematic,
and sometimes what I find is people create goals and they make statements and then they try
to figure out how they're going to make those goals and statements work.
So when you're writing that comprehensive behavior planning you're planning
out how those things are going to be done with the student to teach that replacement behavior,
those components become evident in your plan and are easily then shaped into your IEP goal.
So let's look at some variables to consider in your team discussion
when determining that performance criteria.
You can compare the performance of the replacement behavior to that
of some average student in your classroom, that might be a starting point.
Also, ask yourself because I see this happen, as well, are you expecting more
than the average student performance in the classroom?
And it's good to have those high expectations, but make sure that the expectation isn't over,
above what you expect from the rest of your students, and if you're not sure
about that ask a colleague and get some feedback
from other teachers or someone else in your team.
Our goal is always to remove barriers to learning as quickly as possible,
especially when they're severe in nature, as I just noted.
Behaviors that have a long history can be difficult to change, but it can and does happen,
so don't let the history of behavior shape too much of your thinking here
because it can lead you to some poor decisions.
Really look at the situation at hand that you're dealing with.
For one you might not know the previous history,
we're assuming that the student has a previous history of intervention,
it's possible that the previous history wasn't implemented
or the previous intervention wasn't implemented correctly, not consistently,
and maybe it wasn't the appropriate treatment for the function and the behavior,
maybe it wasn't implemented long enough.
So you want to be really careful here when you're looking at student history
and really look at the facts that you have in front of you,
and it's going to have some bearing on your decision,
but just I want to make a note of those points.
Okay, on the severity and length of time, again, we already talked about that,
if the student behavior is severe you want to mitigate that as soon as possible.
Okay, these are some additional things to consider for team dialogue that can help
in the planning and implementing process.
Remember, these items should never delay intervention,
but should be considered when planning.
So let's look at some examples here.
You're going to consider the support necessary, the potential staff training needed,
and the number of teaching sessions that will be necessary to affect behavior,
and what's feasible implementation.
So, again, these should never hold up intervention, these are just things to consider.
You might want to look at how many teaching trials might be needed each day
and over how many days for the behavior.
You might have some indication of that already.
Some students I work with are 10, 25, 30 trials a day before we start to see --
I mean that's necessary in order to see behavior change, so you want to kind of think
about how many trials a day would you possibly need?
Another consideration is the level of progressions necessary between each step
in your training sequence to eventually reach your stated goal.
I just want to make the statement here, not to make progressions too large,
so sometimes what I'll see is teachers start out with really nice --
and we're going to get to benchmarks and those intermediate steps --
but what happens is they might start out with, say for instance, we'll take our student
who is transitioning from a preferred to not preferred item, they might just start
out with the student moving a foot away from the preferred item until he's successful,
and once he's successful there they make it two feet, and then once he's successful,
two feet without a problem behavior, they expand that to three feet.
And all of a sudden the student is going three feet,
and all of a sudden they're seeing this success, and now it's in another room,
the transition is clear to another room.
So that might be too big of a leap, so just consider these kinds of things when you are,
again, determining your measures.
Okay, that, again, can significantly set your student progress back,
and not something we want to do.
Consider potential variations in a student responding throughout that intervention.
Sometimes it starts out really easy for the student, and then becomes more challenging
as the behaviors are more challenging to shape in the problem behavior,
and I'll give you an example of that or example.
You might have a student who proseterates [Assumed Spelling] on a topic,
and they can barely talk 30 seconds about something else.
So you start them out maybe talking about their favorite topic for 30 seconds,
and then the remainder of the five minutes
of that time they can talk about their favorite thing.
This may get increasingly harder over time, so you may start out with this being really easy,
and you see a surge in the behavior in the direction you want it to go, and then it starts
to get a little harder for the student.
Or it might be the reverse of that, it's really hard to get started,
but once it's started new behaviors quickly develop.
For example, turn taking, it might be really hard for the student to get started in that,
but once they're started and they're successful at it,
it's easy to transfer it to other situations.
So those are just two examples.
Also, what I typically don't see planned for in behavior plans, and you want to consider this
in your goal, is to include fluency, that's doing something that you've learned,
now that you've learned it you can do it correctly and you can do it fast,
that combination of correct and fast together.
The maintenance of a behavior or that retention of that skill over time and generalization,
being able to do that new behavior across different people, environments or stimuli.
You want to consider that in your goal, as well.
These are frequently missed and assumed rather than planned for,
you don't want to assume these things will occur with the student.
Generalization can be very, very difficult for some of our students
and will not occur unless it's specifically planned for.
So, again, adjustments can be made by the team with revisions to IEPs, goals, if necessary,
but again data should guide that decision and include parents.
So now we're to short-term objectives and their benchmarks.
These are required in the IEP process only for children who take the assessment.
So the short-term goals are those intermediate skills, again, that are broken down
and learned to maintain their goal.
Benchmarks are, they kind of describe that amount of progress that the student is expected
to make in a specific segment of the year.
So both of these must be written in measureable terms.
They should match your annual goal.
They're part of your annual goal, again, this segment of your annual goal, it's broken out.
Again, progress should be -- on each of these goals should be documented, and there's no hard
and fast rules here, but with behavior it's nice to break them down.
You might want to look at one or two objectives for your benchmarks to be written
for your annual goal, especially if it's
for a very complex behavior, you might want to break it down.
Okay, now we're at determining the evaluation criteria.
This identifies how well and over what period of time the student must perform the behavior
in order to consider it mastered.
So here we have some examples, we have all the indicators, frequency, nine out of 10,
duration for 10 minutes, distance by feet, accuracy 90%, some time indicators, days,
over three consecutive days, weeks over a four-week period, occasions,
during group or five consecutive occasions.
So this should match the performance type that you have planned for this student,
so what you want the student to do or how you want them to perform.
So is it for a duration, is it a frequency count, is it an accuracy count,
and then for how long do you want them to do that within that count
to consider that a mastered skill.
So, for example, three out of four turn taking opportunities over three consecutive days,
or five consecutive occasions without prompts, or you might have a combination of these,
for example, nine out of 10 trials per day over three consecutive days.
Duration for 10 minutes during group on five consecutive occasions, so, again,
you can have some combinations there.
And this is going to be, again, highly individualized.
So on to determining the evaluation procedures to measure that criteria
or progress that we just talked about.
Oh, back on this next slide, I just wanted to tell you some of the considerations, too,
that you can use on this were from slides 14 and 15,
so some of those things can also be considered in there.
Okay, now onto, again, determining the evaluation procedures to measure the criteria
or progress, this could be structured observations of that target behavior
that you're teaching, it could be self-monitoring checklists
that you're reporting, maybe you're reporting when a student does it independently
or when they have to be prompted to do it.
It could be student -- those student led, behavior charting, that could be number
of tokens earned, there's various behavior charting methods.
Again, it's going to be individualized.
Video recording of performance, time samplings, something like team in the seat
or if the person is out of the seat.
Again, this should align with the behavior plan, what you are doing
to teach the replacement behavior, okay?
That's going to guide this process, so you can see how important these things are
and how they should be tied together.
Okay, so now you want to identify how often the evaluation procedures will be used
to measure the student's progress toward the objective or benchmark, okay?
This is not the date by which the student has to demonstrate mastery of the objective.
Again, think of this as a formative assessment piece, the frequency of information should guide
that instructional piece or the intervention piece,
the frequency of this information should really guide that instructional
and intervention change along the way.
Again, formative assessment, and helps display those important patterns of learning.
It should be frequent enough that it allows for database decision making
of the student's progress, so that you can make timely changes
in the intervention if they're necessary.
Make sure that, again, that this is timely and it's a feasible timeframe that aligns
with the procedures and strategies of intervention.
If it's not doable it won't get done, so and if it's not timely then progress is delayed.
Consider some of those shorter timeframes for those teaching procedures,
like daily, twice a week, weekly.
There's things you want to frequently for formative assessment,
and if you're getting generalization probes possibly you might want to consider how often
and across how many environments you'll need for sufficient generalization skills, possibly.
And consider maybe those longer timeframes for checking maintenance or retention of behaviors.
You might do that, once the student has acquired the behavior you might check it weekly.
If it's still maintaining you might check it again possibly monthly
to see if it is still maintaining.
Okay, the measureable annual goals must contain objective measurement criteria.
We've been talking about this all through this training.
That establishes the point at which the objective has been accomplished, okay?
Again, it enables that progress monitoring, it allows determination of the point at which
that objective has been reached or accomplished.
It could pertain to the mastery of the benchmarks, when you move to the next benchmark,
or when that goal has met in its entirety.
So some examples might be 95% accurate, 20 correct behaviors, 15 out of 20 trials
without disruptive behavior, and again on three consecutive days.
So we've been talking about these a lot, let's look at some examples.
So here's an example of objective criteria,
create fewer than 10 disruptions per day for six consecutive days.
And, again, this would be defined, as observed and recorded by the teacher,
that's our evaluation process, and then scheduled each day.
So if it was written as a goal, again, this is for training purposes only, this example.
When given an instructional task by staff John will create fewer than 10 disruptions per day
for six consecutive days as observed and reported by the teacher, okay?
Here's another process to kind of consider.
The students name, will do what, to what extent, over what period of time or by when,
as evaluated through on the following schedule.
So an example, again, for training purposes is Catherine will wait her turn during group
activities for three out of four turn taking opportunities over three consecutive days
as evaluated through teacher charting of the chart and the behavior every four weeks.
And, again, I color coded this just to guide you through it.
Hopefully, that was helpful for you.
Okay, so let's just look at this?
We're just going to look at one for the sake of time.
So we have our goals and objectives, the measureable annual goal, right here,
when given an instructional direction by staff, Rachel will comply with instructions
without hitting, kicking or making verbal refusals for all staff members in classrooms
across a variety of settings 100% of the time.
And, again, see, we've already got our general statement piece in here for all staff,
so we want it across all members in the classroom and across a variety of settings.
So we're looking for generalization, and because this is a serious behavior
with some physical aggression we really want to see
if we can get this gone completely, so we're looking for 100%.
And then our benchmark is going to be very much the same, it's just going to be a 90%,
it's only going to happen for 90% of the time for 10 consecutive days, okay?
So our benchmark broke that down a little bit more out of this goal.
Again, it's still, our expected level is still 100%,
and we're going to be using charting and observations to evaluate.
Okay, and, again, you can read through the next examples there for your review.
Okay, so next step, we're going to determine how to progress toward that annual goal
and how that's going to be measured.
This will depend on the annual goal timeframe, the annual goal must be no longer than a year,
but you can consider like quarters, weeks, specific numbers of months, for example,
as your timeframe for monitoring or looking at that annual goal,
progress toward that annual goal.
These should be timeframes that allow for appropriate and regular review
of data by the team and the parents.
Again, you can send some formative pieces home to the parents, let students have logs,
things like that, but this is really looking at reporting out on that annual goal.
All right, the recording and reporting systems focus on really summarizing data collected
over time to display those learning patterns toward that goal,
so I'm going to give you two examples today.
The graphing sample, what graphing does is it really displays a picture or a summary
of progress over time, evaluated against like a short-term goal or a benchmark.
In this case we're talking about the annual goal,
and it should include some kind of written summary.
You don't necessarily have to give the written summary, but it should be there to help you kind
of show and include those variables that affect the progress along the way, either good or bad,
to summarize and really to enhance the dialogue and analysis
of that graph that you're looking at.
So that could include absences or school breaks, you know, we've had a lot of snow breaks lately,
that is affecting behavior plans, I'm sure.
So you want to look at absences or school breaks through that reporting period
that might have affected teaching and learning opportunities.
It could be the teacher was off on leave or something like that, you have staff changes,
substitutes, something like that, maybe that affected your students responding, class change
and schedules, maybe these were permanent.
Really anything that helps the team evaluate the progress and really give some pieces
to really just enhance that dialogue and analysis as you're looking at that graph.
Again, and celebrate those successes.
I think parents really need to know that their children are doing well,
they need to know what they've done well, let them know in these meetings.
It's really important that we celebrate those pieces, even if they're small,
those little nuggets that kids are mastering and moving toward progress, that's really important,
so be sure to make sure you're celebrating that, as well.
Okay, so just a brief form example, we'll start with that.
It's, again, these are four reporting periods across the annual goal, that would be stated
in this column, and then you would just state the summary of progress here.
And, again, that could be written or just bolded statements that provide some dialogue.
There's coding on the bottom, as well, so you could use that coding included in your summary.
And, again, there are short numerous other forms, this is just one example.
This is a graph, we'll look at this one.
This is an example of a 30-week aim with six weeks, with a six-week monitoring period.
So basically I'm just showing here this is the first six weeks,
and then this graph has a second six weeks.
I'm not going to go into graphing in this training because it would just take more
than an hour to do all this, plus the graphing.
So we're providing a link at the end of this training to really --
if you want to go in and really look at the details of graphing you can use
that link that's on the PaTTAN website.
So let's read our measurable annual goal here.
When at school and when given the verbal direction by staff to transition
from a preferred task to a non-preferred task, Ryan will stop the preferred task
within five seconds of the request and move to a non-preferred task 100% of the time
without problem behavior for 10 consecutive days.
That's our annual goal, and then that's going to be -- I need you to make a correction here,
I need you to on your paperwork remove three consecutive probes, that was an error on my part
when I was writing this over, so it should state exactly what I have here --
observation and recording of Ryan's response to daily transition requests,
as well as progress monitoring charts will be forwarded every six weeks --
so that's what that should say here, and then the progress report will be every six weeks.
So, again, here's our aim line, by the end of the 30-week period we will be here,
and if you look at his first six weeks you see he's well on his way
and making fabulous progress here.
If you wanted to, you could look at this being 100% and just working this down equally
and saying we at least need to see through this period that he's above this aim line and moving
through there, so that would be good progress.
We're going to talk more about that in a few minutes, that database decision making,
and I don't want to start that conversation here, so we'll come back to this.
The one thing I do want to show you in this because some people do do this,
what I want to show you is we've added here this 100% of the time
without problem behavior for 10 consecutive days.
This would be a maintenance goal.
In other words, we're looking for retention.
Okay, he's met the 100%, but we're really not calling it mastered
until he's got 10 consecutive days at 100%.
So what that would look like here would be moving your aim line to,
again, 10 consecutive days.
We really want him to be at mastery 100% here, and then 10 consecutive days out, right here.
It may take longer than that, but that would be within our 30-week aim.
So that's just an example to show you if you're including that you want to make
that consideration for your aim line.
Okay, let me see if I missed anything --
oh, yes, I want to make one other important point here about percentage.
It's really important if you're using percentage goals, in this case we were looking
at percentage here, and again I'm not going to go into major detail here,
but I just want to say that if you're doing percentage you need to make sure
that you are doing the same number of trials each day.
If not, you really can't compare one day to the next because 30% of, for example,
10 trials is not the same as 30% of 20 trials,
so now you're not comparing the same equivalent number of trials,
so you want to be really careful with that because that can happen in your behavior plan.
People, the procedure drift happens, if it does, again, you want to note that in your summary
when you're talking about the student's progress,
so that could be something that's showing that he's not progressing,
but it's just a number of trials that are being done.
Okay, all right, so let's move on to data collection.
Data really provides that system for continuous decision making
and it's part of the improvement process.
So during intervention measuring the student's behavior goal
through that whole data collection, through data collection pieces allows you to monitor progress
and really to determine the effectiveness of your strategies.
And the programs are prevention and intervention,
so there's antecedent pieces and your consequences, as well.
What I've found sometimes is if a behavior plan is not working, the first thing that I'll look
at is the fidelity of implementation.
So, again, if you have outlined in your plan the steps that people are to do in the teaching
of the replacement behavior you can quickly turn those into a checklist for fidelity
of implementation, and be able to go back in and see if there's something
that wasn't implemented correctly.
It might be that the teachers or whoever is doing this implementing,
they just need more training, and I'll go over some other examples later,
but this also tells you when to adjust your strategies and programs as necessary.
You'll see those patterns of learning, the history of intervention across time,
so you'll be able to see what was effective and what wasn't
to make further decisions in the future.
And then, again, it shows when that student has mastered
that goal, and I just spoke about this one.
So there's going to numerous indicators of progress to consider
when making database decisions regarding the teaching
and practicing about replacement behavior.
So these may help you determine any critical variables impeding progress toward a
So while you have pieces in your plan that you're using specifically to guide your teaching
of that behavior, you may also see some other indicators.
And the one I want to point out here that's most important is the academic skill improvement due
to the reduction of problem behavior.
If you are seeing that your behavior plan is working
and the behavior was impeding instruction
of those learning opportunities you should see the student accessing more learning
opportunities, and that should equate into improvement
in academics and all functional skills.
So there should be a direct correlation right here.
So just be sure that you're looking at that data, as well, because then again
that supports your summary or that sum of information along the way
for your annual goal and the student's progress.
Again, it could be skill sets acquired along the way, as well, within the intervention.
There's all kinds of things that you can be looking at that are tied to student progress
that are above and beyond what you have put into your progress monitoring for the annual goal.
Okay, all right, on this one we're going to look at the key features
of effective database decision making.
That process, it really needs to be that data needs to be easy to collect.
Again, I've already talked about it needing to be accurate, valuable and reliable,
without that you don't have progress monitoring.
You want to represent it in a friendly format.
Again, those graphs or charts so that it can be easily explained,
or show that nice picture over time.
And then it needs to be available when you're making those decisions.
I've often sat down with some teams just to discuss behavior plans
and the data is not compiled or it's not available to you to make those decisions.
So you want to make sure that it's available when you're making those important decisions.
It needs to be a team approach, including all the classroom teachers and the parents.
The team needs to be trained in the collection and the use of the data,
and they need to understand the value of their work in that collection piece.
So if you're collecting data and you're not using it
or you're collecting data that's not tied to this progress monitoring piece,
you're just collecting data because you're mandated to do that,
then it's really not serving its purpose, and it kind of devalues the process.
So you have to understand and value this work.
You have to see how it works to support your student
and really moving toward those outcome measures.
Again, don't collect data for the sake of collecting it.
Okay, again, here's the graphing directions.
I'm not going to go into graphing, and I believe this is at the end of the slide, as well,
but it's here again for your convenience.
Graphing data really, again, provides that visual analysis that you can increase by quality
and speed at which you can make interpretations and decisions.
And three things we're going to look at today are trends, stability and variability.
So a trend really looks at the direction the data is going,
and it indicates the effectiveness of the intervention that it's having on your behavior.
So if you have an increasing trend that means that the data points are going
in an upward motion and the intervention is having an increasing affect on behavior,
good or bad, okay, it's having an increasing affect.
Decreasing trend means that the data points are going down
and so the intervention is having a decreasing affect on the behavior, again, good or bad.
That it is relevant to the behavior that you are measuring.
And zero trend, which is this right here,
means that the data points are really not going anywhere, they're just what we call flat lining,
they're not moving up or down, they can move up or down slightly,
but the trend is really negligible, you can't really discern it.
All right, stability in data and variability, as you can see, we're looking now at the movement,
the up and down movement between data points.
As you can see, there's not much up and down movement between these data points.
The data we would say is pretty stable.
When we see data like this it really could suggest that there's little or no affect
on student behavior, like it's pretty much just maintaining where it was.
Now that could be a good thing or a bad thing.
For example, this is at 80%, if it were down here at 10% and we want the student to be at 80%
that would really be a problem,
that that student our intervention really isn't making a difference,
it's having no affect on that behavior.
But if it's at 80% and our goal is 80% this might signal that the student is maintaining
that behavior, it's not going down, it's not going up, it's staying right
where we want it to stay if our goal is 80%.
If our goal is 100% and we see that going across, like we talked about earlier,
for 10 consecutive days that would be beautiful,
we would want to see that data stabilizing over time.
If you look down here you can see in these up and down movements between data points,
this is high variability, and this is typically not a good thing.
When you see this, this means that there's something going
on every day here that's causing the intervention to work and then not work,
work and then not work, or should I say be effective with the student.
And there are several things that could be happening here,
such as maybe an instructor doesn't have a control over the teaching method,
inconsistent implementation of the intervention, consequences that are randomly applied,
just to name a few things that could be happening here.
Also, you can see that sometimes if there's illness or something that is kind of out
of control, it's kind of something the student could be ill and responding differently.
I had a student with a cochlear implant and wasn't able to tell us that it was a problem
for her, and her data looked like this, we could not figure out what the problem was
and here it was the cochlear implant was acting up and causing something to, you know,
some discomfort for her that we couldn't discern.
So once we got that straightened out we got back on the increased trend.
Okay, all right, so let's look at some database decision making guidelines.
The data you've been collecting should help you answer these questions.
Is the student making progress toward the goals and objectives?
As a general rule or a general guideline, four out of the last six data points
or four consecutive data points, if those are falling below your aim line the student is not
So, but beware here of your X axis, this is weeks, months, quarters,
if that's for consecutive months that's a problem, it's a bigger problem
than four consecutive weeks, neither of those are good scenarios and you want to make sure
that you're not letting things go too long before you intervene, okay?
How is the student responding to the intervention?
If the intervention methods and training is appropriate the student should be responding.
If the student is not making progress you should review the following possible changes.
You might look at are the prevention strategies implemented with fidelity?
Are they working?
Is change needed there?
You would review the instruction materials and methods possibly, and it could be an instructor
where the instructor maybe needs more training or staff training
or some support that needs to be looked at.
Is there fidelity implementation?
Again, this is a big one.
Is the intervention implementing as planned?
So if you go back to your behavior plan, you know, I typically put right
in my behavior plans treatment fidelity piece,
so if this is the plan then I have a treatment fidelity piece that goes right with it
that anyone could walk in and observe and take data
on if things are being implemented appropriately.
Again, it takes time, some of these behavior problems are really complex, and it takes time
and support for staff to be trained in them.
And you want to make sure that they're getting all those stats.
Is the treatment schedule being followed?
That's another one.
Are they doing it as much as they should be?
Is it dense enough?
And are there opportunities for teaching and practice of that skill embedded in there?
These are questions that really need to be answered by the team, including parents,
so the progress can be evaluated over multiple settings.
So these are things that you can start asking questions about.
If the student's performance is below the aim line on three consecutive days,
parallel to that aim line, you want to monitor the student's performance
through the next several data points.
And, again, we're going to look at some graphs, I just want to go through this with you
so we can have a discussion first.
So if it decelerates then you want a continuous plan.
Review with the team to determine if there are any issues that could have occurred
that would affect future progress.
So, again, if you're seeing that it's below you don't want to just go, oh, you know, we'll wait
and see what happens, you want to still monitor that and say we had a little blip
in this what could have caused that, is it something we can prevent in the future?
If it continues to decelerate review all the data with your team and observe implementation,
again, for potential barriers or any kind of changing variables that are affecting progress.
If it flat lines, there's no change, you want to review that data and observe implementation.
I would be in there observing to see how things were implemented
for any potential barriers or changing variables.
Sometimes you can have things, like procedural drift, occur where a behavior plan has been
in place and it's working, and then people forget about certain steps, and then over time
if you forget it once then let's say you forget it again, and then as weeks go
by you can forget again -- oh, we forgot that stuff,
we were doing it, but we're not doing it anymore.
So it could be something simple as procedural drift that is occurring.
All right, let's see if there's anything else here.
Okay, if the student's performance is above the aim line, three or more consecutive days,
it may be appropriate to raise that aim line, that would be great, except for the exception
of 100%, you could raise the aim line.
You could -- if you're going to raise the aim line you want to draw a new aim line parallel to
and above the most current aim line so that that indicates that you've raised it.
You don't want to erase your old one, so leave that one in there.
Anytime the intervention is changed we put something in called a phase change line and,
again, it's just a vertical line between when you start something different
or change the intervention, and that provides that visual correlation between
or among changes that have occurred over time.
And then you can kind of gauge how the student is responding
to the changes in the intervention over time.
Again, it helps you analyze and make decisions.
It's, again, tracking what's working and what's not working.
Okay, so let's look at our graph here, we'll take a few minutes.
Seeing we're right on time and how much time we have.
So I'm going to look at this one first, again, this was an annual,
our annual goal with six-week periods in here, and our aim is 100%.
We're not going to worry about that aim change that I showed you earlier,
which is going to look at this 100% aim, and if this is our first six weeks,
it looks like our student went three data points above the aim line, we know he's right
on track or making good progress.
If we look at this graph, here on our upper right,
the student was making good progress here, and then all of a sudden started to flat line.
Again, the trend, the trend is just flat.
So here we have an accelerated trend and then a flat line.
Where I would start to be concerned about this is even before it hits, say, these last --
if we go back to six data points or four data points, I would really start looking at in here
if I have three data points that are flat, even though they're not below
that aim line that's going to signal a red flag.
There's really two things I'm looking at here, is it below the aim line, and is it a flat line?
Is this pattern repeating?
We'd want to get in here and see what's going on, so a student is not responding
to intervention for some reason, so we want to get in here and see what's happening.
Okay, let's look at this one.
This is beautiful, the student is way above aim line, he's already at 66%
and it's only the second six weeks of observation.
Here this would be, you would want to be celebrating this,
this is really nice, very high upward trend.
And, again, it's way above that aim line, so that looks really good.
On this one, again, these are examples, they're all the same student,
I'm just providing different examples.
This is, again, we have this upward trend and then we have where we kind of leveled off,
and then we fell down, then we came back up again, back down.
This is that variability that we talked about, and really signals
that there's some inconsistency here that we want to really be going in
and monitoring to see what's going on.
Again, is it that things are being implemented inconsistently, is there something maybe going
on with the student that we need to look at?
So really right here is where it starts to come down.
You can see, well, it's starting to come up here, and then it's dropping back down,
and you have an upward trend here, but I would still be
in here monitoring what's going on here, okay?
Now these are weeks, but again you're not showing progress here for the second six weeks,
that's a long time to not be intervening, okay?
All right, so here are the links for any of the publications.
You have one for Writing an Effective IEP Goal, Developing Standards and Align IEPs,
that is a webinar, and Addressing Behavior in the IEP, that's another webinar
that can support some of the information that we covered today.
And I want to thank you for joining me.
I'm going to hand this back to Diane.
Have a great afternoon, and I hope this was helpful to you in your planning process.
>> Thank you, so much, Linda.
You certainly -- your presentation was very well received in the field.
Following this webinar you will receive an e-mail inviting you
to send questions and comments about the webinar.
Feel free to respond to that prompt, if you have questions
for Linda she'll get them through that particular e-mail.
And, again, thank you to Linda, and thank you for joining us for this webinar.