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Hello. Thank you for attending the Brain STEPS Program and the Epilepsy Foundation
of Western/Central Pennsylvania, the webinar on Traumatic Brain Injuries
and Epilepsy: What Schools Need to Know.
Today, during our webinar, we have two presenters, the first one is myself,
Brenda Eagan Brown, I'm the Brain STEPS Program Coordinator.
We will talk about the Brain STEPS Program later in the webinar.
It's implemented through the Brain Injury Association of Pennsylvania.
We set up brain injury consulting teams throughout the state.
And I'm Andrea Zonneveld.
I'm the Community Education and Events Coordinator
for the Epilepsy Foundation Western/Central Pennsylvania.
I'm going to talk to you today about epilepsy and seizures and then we'll also talk
about the foundation and the different programs and services we have to offer.
So for our objectives for today's webinar, first is to recognize the types
of acquired brain injuries that there are.
Number 2, participants will identify impacts that could occur
over time following pediatric brain injury.
Number 3, recognize some of the most common seizure types experienced
by people following a brain injury, learn how to respond to seizures and the proper first aid
for different seizure types in the school environment, and learn about the programs
and resources provided by both the Brain STEPS Program
and the Epilepsy Foundation of Western/Central Pennsylvania.
Teachers should be aware of seizure types and signs that may occur at school
after a student sustains a traumatic brain injury.
The first to begin, we're going to talk about traumatic brain injury statistics
and this is Brenda Eagan Brown talking currently.
Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults.
This comes from the Centers for Disease Control.
The Centers for Disease Control have calculated that on average,
the annual number of traumatic brain injury, emergency department visits,
and hospitalizations in the United States averaged
about half a million children ages 0 to 14 years of age every year.
Now, most children who sustained a traumatic brain injury were treated
and released from the emergency department.
How common is traumatic brain injury in children in Pennsylvania?
Well, in our state, there are approximately 26,000 children who sustained some severity
of traumatic brain injury every year.
The majority of this number constitutes concussions and mild traumatic brain injuries.
We also know that in our State of Pennsylvania, approximately 4,000 children
and adolescents are hospitalized overnight with a traumatic brain injury.
This number include students that are more moderate to severe in nature, typically,
if they need hospitalization overnight that tends the severity that we see.
Now, a concussion is a traumatic brain injury.
We could spend hours talking about concussion alone,
even concussion related to seizure activities.
But I did want to tell you that concussion is a traumatic brain injury.
We had-- I know we had a lot of school nurses on the call today.
And whether you see a medical report or something from a doctor
that says a student have a minor head injury,
a mild traumatic brain injury, it all means concussion.
The concussion incidence, another statistic just for concussions alone,
the Centers for Disease Control state that 3.8 million sports
and recreation-related concussions are estimated to occur in the United States every year.
This number actually is 1.7 to 3.8 million.
It's a huge gap in between.
You know, no one's really sure exactly how many concussions are occurring.
Some experts have said that it would be 10 times this amount
if we were accurately capturing all concussions that occur,
but many people who have concussions don't go to the doctor, or to their PTT or the pediatrician
and those numbers are not reported.
In Pennsylvania, approximately 22,000 children ages 0 to 21 suffer concussions.
I'm going to talk a little bit about the child's brain
because a child's brain is very different than an adult's brain.
A child's brain is undeveloped when they are first born and it needs time
and experience to actually mature.
A child's brain is not well-organized.
It's very easily injured which is why we hear
about the prevalence of shaken baby syndrome so much.
New abilities build on established skills over time as the developmental process continues
over the years, and it used to be thought that little children were just like little adults.
But we know that people don't just simply bounce back after a brain injury, especially children.
That is a myth.
A child's brain is not fully developed until around the early to mid-20s.
So this means that a child's brain as it's developing,
different lobes of the brain undergo different maturation periods.
And an earlier injury may not manifest itself until that area of the brain is maturing
and is being called upon for maybe higher order thinking skill.
This could be when we see the deficit from a prior brain injury manifest.
Also brain injury and developmental stages, it's the capacities that are in the process
of a developing and those capacities that has not yet then developed
that are most vulnerable to brain injury.
Essentially what this means is it's typically after brain injury from that point forward,
learning will-- could be difficult.
What has been learned prior to that tends to remain intact.
So it's the child or the adolescent's future capabilities to learn.
When an adult has a brain injury and adult has already gone through their schooling,
had potentially already gone through college,
has already had life experiences, that will tend to remain intact.
But when children have a brain injury,
they will do all their future learning on an injured brain.
This is a chart that just shows the five peak maturation periods of the brain.
It's from Dr. Ron Savage and charts out ages 1 to 21 years.
As you can see, between the ages of 1 and 5, there is a lot of maturation that occurs
and then it goes, you know, up until the early '20s.
I wanted to touch on the different types of brain injury.
We've talked a lot about traumatic brain injuries with our statistic but there is a term
that an umbrella term called Acquired Brain Injuries.
That umbrella term is any brain injury that occurs after birth and it includes traumatic
and non-traumatic brain injuries.
The types of brain injuries that there are as I just said traumatic and non-traumatic,
let's start with the non-traumatic.
These were examples of non-traumatic brain injuries.
The reason I'm talking about them is because all types
of brain injuries can cause seizure activity.
So I wanted you to be thinking of students that you know about that have had all sorts
of brain injuries that occurred after birth.
The students that have had vascular occlusion, hemorrhaging, aneurism,
ingestion of toxic substances, can called--
cause a non-traumatic brain injury such as inhalation of organic solvent and ingestion
of heavy metal like lead or alcohol and drug abuse.
A stroke can cause a non-traumatic brain injury.
Infections of the brain such as brain abscesses, meningitis, encephalitis, cat scratch fever,
hypoxic injuries which are reduced oxygen to the brain, and anoxic injuries
which are complete lack of oxygen to the brain, the brain neurons need oxygen to live
and when the oxygen supply is cut off, neurons die.
That's what causes brain damage.
These are some examples of anoxia and hypoxia.
The choking game which is what, you know, was trending in different part of the United States,