DR. EILEEN ST. JOHN: Hello. My name is Dr. Eileen St. John. I'm an educational consultant and I work for the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network in our Pittsburgh office. Today,
we're going to talk about the RtII modules and we're going to focus on module five which is Progress Monitoring and Instructional Adjustment at tier levels 2 and 3. At first -- before we start that,
I would like to inform you more about Penn's mission and the mission of the Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network is to support the efforts and initiatives of the Bureau of Special
Education, and to build the capacity of local educational agencies to serve students who receive special education services. Our goal for each child is to ensure Individualized Education Program
teams begin with the general education setting with the use of Supplementary Aids and Services before considering a more restrictive environment for those students. Our goal to -- for today is to
advance teacher understanding of how student achievement for students receiving supports at tier levels 2 ad 3 are impacted by the types of interventions used and how consistent progress monitoring
is needed to attain this success. This video will focus on the following objectives. First, we would like you to understand the instructional consider -- ranges and changes that have to take place in
order to have a positive impact on students. Second, we'll talk about determining how to choose the correct intervention and then how to use that intervention and the data from progress monitoring to
increase student achievement. And lastly, to understand how progress monitoring and making instructional adjustments based on the data is imperative to making those achievement advances for students.
So let's talk about overview and definitions. First off, we want to give an overview of RtII, Progress Monitoring, Tier 2 Interventions and Tier 3 Interventions. So throughout this video, I will be
referencing these following terms. Response to instruction and intervention is a multi-level prevention system that encompasses high quality classroom instruction, universal screening, progress
monitoring, evidence-based interventions, and fidelity of implementation. Progress monitoring is a continuous monitoring of student progress and use of progress monitoring data to determine
intervention effectiveness and to drive instructional adjustments and to identify or measure progress toward instructional grade level goals. So, who are the students who receive these types of
supports? Well, students who receive Tier 2 supports or Tier 2 interventions and those are for students who are falling behind on their benchmark skills and require additional instruction to achieve
grade level expectations. Tier 2 interventions are usually small group, four to five students per teacher and its supplemental instructions centered on evidence-based practices. Research supports
that a timeframe of eight to twelve weeks is important to make these consistent changes with these interventions to build a student's progress. And with that -- along with that, the interventions for
eight to twelve weeks is a continuous progress monitoring of two -- every two weeks so that you can watch the data and look at the data that students have that you're getting back from them to see,
is the intervention actually working or is it not, do we need to change things up a little bit, what do we need to do, is it -- and along with those go the in -- the fidelity of implementation of
those interventions as well, as well as the fidelity of implementation of the progress monitoring tools that you're going to be using. We will discuss those later on in the video. At the end of the
intervention timeframe, you should be making judgments with these Tier 2 students. Are they ready to move into a benchmark setting, a Tier 1 setting in -- out of these actual Tier 2 level
interventions or is it possible that the interventions weren't working quite the way you thought they were and so that they're going to have to move down a little bit and go into a more intensive
instructional system which would be Tier 3? It is important that you keep in mind that whatever skills you happen to be working on, students can fluctuate between those skills very easily. So a skill
that -- a student may have a skill where they are in a -- they scored in a Tier 2 level, they may actually score in a benchmark level in a higher skill or another skill that goes along with it. So it
is really important for your data and the use of data that you remember all of those things as you are -- as you are looking at students who receive Tier 2 supports. So let's talk about students who
then receive Tier 3 supports. These interventions are more intensive supplemental instruction and they often last a lot longer than the Tier 2 interventions. Tier 3 interventions are the students who
fail to make progress at Tier 2 level supports or students who have -- once you have assessed them with diagnostic assessments are extremely low and will score in the intensive range. I will show you
later on in the video an example of CBMs and how a student could score in those lower ranges for math and then you would be able to understand how the Tier 3 level will work a little bit more
consistently. So, it's also important for progress monitoring when you're talking about these Tier 3 level students that you progress monitor for them at least once a week. Now, when we get in to
talking about -- more about the data and how to use the data, we'll talk about the number of scores that you look at in order to reference that data and make decisions based on the data and that's
what we need to do, start using more data-based decision making within our instruction to change instruction to meet the needs of all students. So, effective mathematics instruction should include
effective classroom instruction as well as a system of supports for students who may have been identified as needing more than just classroom instruction. So let's talk about it. When do we do it?
This is progress monitoring. When do we do it? Who is progress monitoring? And what are some of the benefits of progress monitoring? Well, when do we do it? We would progress for tier level 2
students, as I said previously, every 2 weeks. It is not necessary for Tier level 2 students to progress monitor them anymore but you do want to make sure that you're progress monitoring in a
two-week time period and you are consistent with that progress monitoring. Tier 3 level students, when do we do that for them? We progress monitor for them every week but as well as with the Tier 2,
it is extremely important to remember when we're using Tier 3 interventions that you have enough of a timeframe in between if -- to measure their progress. For instance, if you progress monitored on
a Friday and the following week you knew they were going to be off from school on Friday, so you progress monitored on a Thursday, you really only have three days of intervention for that student to
make those changes. So because you only have three days of intervention to make those changes, you're not going to see a great gain in anything with their progress monitoring. So it is extremely
important that you remember that progress monitoring needs to be consistent. You do it within a week's time period. If you do it on a Friday and they're off the following Friday, do it the following
Monday. Just make sure that you're being very consistent about it and that you're not waiting two to three weeks for Tier 3 students to do these interventions -- these progress monitoring and make
changes within their interventions. So by utilizing progress monitoring effectively we can determine the chosen intervention that is going to be used and that is one of the main benefits of progress
monitoring. We can look at the interventions. Are they working? Are they not working? If they're working, let's continue with them. If they're not, then what we do is we move on. We move on from that
and say, this is what we need to do, we need to choose a different intervention that's going to meet the needs of this particular student. Now, all students do not benefit from the same types of
intervention. We have students in Tiers 3 -- Tiers -- Tier levels 2 and 3 who are receiving tier level supports who may not respond to a particular intervention. You may have a group of four to five
students in strategic which is Tier level 2 and they may not all respond in the same way to the same type of intervention. So you try to meet the needs of the group of students and then try to meet
the needs of those individual students whom this might not actually be working for as well. There is a changing that has to take place and flexibility that has to take place in order for you to find
the correct intervention that's going to work to increase their progress. So let's talk about some instructional considerations. Okay. Some of these might be early intervention, time, scheduling,
materials and resources. Early mathematics intervention is important to preventing later deficits and also to repair current deficits. Administrators and teachers need to be aware of how beginning
and implementing an intervention program will impact their school and classrooms. There are a lot of impacts, logistical impacts that take place when you start using interventions. For instance,
time, time is of the essence. It is important to start the students as early in the school year as possible. It is also important that these students get a consistent timeframe with it every day as
well as within the weeks that they are there. An example might be, if you have students who need to have interventions in Tier 2 and we're talking a good amount of time for Tier 2 interventions would
be an extra 20 minutes per day. That needs to be consistent four to five days per week. If it is not consistent, those -- you will not see the gains in those students that they need to make. The
other thing that comes into play is, "Where do I find that extra time? Where do I find that 20 minutes?" Well, there are some things that you can do within the classroom so that you can provide for
intervention time. Maybe you have started a classroom and you started the class and you find that you're going to give them some group work to do. Well, that is a great time to pull back that group
of students who might need a specific intervention if you're giving them -- the other students group work. You want to make sure that all students are on task and doing what they need to be doing. So
that is of an utmost consideration when you think about, "How am I going to do this? How am I going to provide the time?" The other part of that that goes with the Tier 3 level students would be an
extra -- they need an extra 60 to 90 minutes sometimes a day to be able to fully gain in their progress toward the achievement that they need to have and try to get them to benchmark levels where
they need to be. Well, coming up with an extra 60 to 90 minutes sometimes can be very difficult within schedules and oftentimes what we do is we use the resources that we have within the school such
as, "Do you have paraprofessionals in the school? Do you have a speech-language pathologist? Do you have special ed teachers, resource teachers, coaches, math coaches within your classrooms or within
your school?" These are resources within your school that you can help to help you with the time period and wonder about how you're going to get those students where they need to be. So, the SLD
Determination Guidelines suggests that students receiving Tier 2 supports get an additional 30 minutes of intervention per day and that, students receiving Tier 3 supports get an additional 30 to 60
minutes per day. Now, that does fluctuate depending on whether or not you're using the SLD Determination Guidelines or whether you're going by research-based information and both of them have a
little bit of flux with them. It can be anywhere from 20 to 30 for Tier 2. It can be anywhere from 30 to 90 or 30 -- 60 to 90 for Tier 3 students. Administrators and teachers need -- may see this as
a barrier to providing interventions to these students. "Well, I can't find the time so we can't do it." There is always some free time to be able to provide some type of interventions for the
students. Another suggestion might be if you have half days and you're on a half day schedule. Think about using that time to also provide some intervention time for the students as well, some extra
in addition to these other times that we talked about. So, scheduling seems to be another concern because often it takes the specialist in the school to actually provide this intervention for those
Tier 3 students because it is such a large chunk of time. The important thing to remember with scheduling is that you do not want those students pulled out of the regular class to go for
interventions. They need those interventions in addition to the regular class time and that's important to remember. So, let's talk about materials and resources. So, how do you choose materials and
resources? Sometimes you have one person in a school district who may be choosing materials and resources. Well, what you need to do is look at -- there are websites and I will be providing one of
those later on. But there are ways to look at it and scan the materials and resources to find the materials and resources that you need that will meet the needs of your students and are within your
budget. And we will talk about that. So, another thing you talk about is training. When you talk about training, the -- using the materials. Another thing is training. And especially if you're going
to use commercially obtained programming, training is required and it's usually required by the people who have the actual program. So, when you're thinking about all of that and thinking about
budgets and thinking about scheduling and time, you need to think about how much time do my teachers need or how much time am I going to have to spend in training as a teacher to be able to do this.
So, here are some questions I want you to consider when you think about choosing your progress monitoring system. For example, how was the data provided to you? Is the data provided via graphs that
are already made out? Is the data provided to you in the form of a printout, an excel spreadsheet? Or do you actually have to put the types of data in and actually make those graphs and spreadsheets
on your own? So, that's an important consideration because that thing goes back to the time and the scheduling and, you know, when do I have time to give the intervention but when do I have time to
graph all of the students' information now? The other thing is how easy will it be to implement? If you're thinking about materials and resources, you need to know how easy it is going to be to
implement this actual progress monitoring tool. Is it a quick down-and-dirty type of thing where you actually have just a few minutes and it takes only a few minutes to progress monitor the students
or is it something that's going to take a little bit more time? That again goes back to the time and the scheduling and how all of those things can interfere and logistics can actually cause problems
with that. What types of data are they providing? Are they providing us with data to show just the student's progress or are they providing us with data that shows us where the students scored each
time they actually took that? For instance, is a student still not progressing outside of the strategic category or the frustration or intensive category? And do they need more interventions in that
part? What types of data are we getting from that? The fourth thing to remember is how much does it cost? And that is usually a major concern for most of school -- most of the school districts. They
want to know upfront how much it's going to cost. So, you need to consider, are they reproducible? Are there things that you can reproduce from the materials that you get that you can reproduce in
your own school or do you have to buy their product and use only their product? A fifth thing to remember is what types of support for the use of the product will you get? Are you going to get
training from the group who sold the product to you? Are they going to be providing any support if there's problems or questions down the road? If your students aren't making progress, what types of
support are you actually going to get? And the last thing you need to think about is how much training or professional development will the staff need to be able implement this progress monitoring
tool with fidelity? It is extremely important that the progress monitoring tool be implemented with fidelity and that everybody is using it exactly the same in order to see progress across the grade
levels and across the tier levels. So, let's talk a little bit about interventions. We're going to talk about the benefits of interventions, who gets them, time, and what do I use for these types of
interventions. Using interventions is -- in an RtII framework can have positive results for struggling learners. It is important to not only choose the correct intervention but also to provide the
time for the intervention to be implemented properly in order to see positive student success. So, who gets the interventions? Students who are receiving both Tier 2 and Tier 3 level supports.
Mathematics can be very challenging for struggling learners. The relationships between the concepts and procedures need to be linked with prior knowledge. Weaknesses in early math concepts can cause
problems for students in later grades. Struggling learners require immediate interventions if they're to be prepared for future success in the math classroom. Research has demonstrated that
intervention should happen four to five days per week for a minimum of 20 minutes. This is what I discussed earlier. SLD Determination has a little bit differently but research is saying at least 20
minutes. Okay? So, students who struggle in math need a systematic explicit instruction to overcome their deficiencies or lack of skills. For students receiving supports in Tier 3, the time required
for interventions may be more per day. So, what can you do -- what can you use for intentions? Well, first, you need to think about your diagnostic assessments. What types of diagnostic assessments
are you using in order to determine where these students may have deficiencies or where they just may have skills that they hadn't attained yet? And we like to use the word a lot about deficiencies
but it just may be a lack of understanding those skills as well and that's important to remember when you think about the types of interventions and what we're going to use. So, let's talk about the
types of -- there are many programs for interventions. Let's talk about those for a minute, okay? It's important that when you're making choices for purchasing programs to use for interventions that
you consider the areas that your students may have these -- may lack in the skills or have these deficiencies in. One of those areas may be number sense. It may be operations. Maybe you're talking
about algebraic concepts. Maybe you're talking about fractions or decimals. When you think about interventions, they can focus in on particular areas. So, you want to want think about what it is that
-- what are these areas that my students lack in that I need to provide these interventions for? Now, many students may have areas or skills that are lacking across the gamut of what they're supposed
to learn for that particular year, within their academic year. So, you need to find out what is the most important one, what is the one that they need to be able to further themselves on and that's
where you start. You go back to the beginning. If it is number sense that they are lacking in, you go back to number sense and you start building that understanding, that conceptualization.
Oftentimes, what happens is we find that the student did not get that basic skill because they lack the conceptual understanding that they needed to have to be able to do that. So, when you think
about their -- the -- what's coming up on the diagnostic assessments, you also need to know more about that student and what is it the student lacks. Is it just the basic conceptual understanding or
does the student truly have a deficiency in this area that we need to address and adjust and then look at the interventions that you're using? Some resources for providing a list of interventions can
actually be found on our PaTTAN website. We have PaTTAN brochures that list them as well but there's another source to use as well for you in -- that you can get via internet and that is the What
Works Clearinghouse. And they provide a list of interventions for schools and they actually provide a list of the intervention type programs, what actually that intervention covers. For instance,
does this intervention specifically focus on algebraic concepts? Does it focus on numbers and operations? Does it focus on fractions, decimals? Does it focus on measurement? There are varying
different things that they may actually focus on. So, you want be careful when you're choosing your interventions that that's what you're thinking about too. What is it that I have the greatest need
for? For instance, you do not want to go and pay money out to choose an intervention program if you only have one student who doesn't -- who has that deficiency or lacks those skills. You want to buy
programs that are going to benefit the most -- the largest number of students. You still want to provide the interventions for that student but purchasing a program can be costly and you want to
think about that when you're -- when you actually are talking about your interventions. And this isn't a decision to be made by one. This is a decision that should be made across the grade level. It
should be made with people who are in the know, your math coaches need to be involved, your principals, your assistant principals, your teachers, everyone needs to be involved in this in choosing the
types of interventions because they will actually be choosing -- they will actually be using this intervention as well as choosing this intervention. So, they need to be aware of what it -- what it
covers and how it works and how it's going to benefit the students that they are going to be providing these interventions for. So, let's talk about then choosing the correct intervention. The
interventions that meet the needs of your students, for instance, students receiving Tier 2 support, students receiving Tier 3 support. We're going to talk about the What Works Clearinghouse site and
we're going to talk about the -- how to evaluate the effects of an intervention. So, when choosing an intervention, it is important to choose the intervention that will best meet the needs of the
student with regard to skill deficits. Interventions for students receiving Tier 2 supports might include the introduction of a skill to be learned, fluency building of an already acquired skill,
teaching a prerequisite skill to fluency, or guided practice to apply a skill they are learning. The program chosen for these interventions should include well-sequenced lessons, ensure mastery of
skills as they progress, and provide adequate data on how the student is progressing. Effective programs for students receiving supports at Tier 2 provide ample opportunity for the students to
practice the skill using different materials and different problem presentations. Interventions for students receiving Tier 3 supports should target the specific deficits noted in the screening
assessment. Students receiving support in Tier 3 may require specific strategy instruction to learn how to apply what they are learning during intervention time into their regular classroom. It is
extremely important that we do not forget that -- about transference and that is the ability for those students to take what they have learned in their interventions and apply them in the classroom.
So, transference is extremely important regardless of what tier level these students are in. Intervention materials might come from published resources. The What Works Clearinghouse that I mentioned
previously is the site that reviews intervention programs. Although the types of intervention programs available are listed, it is important to remember that the right intervention needs to be chosen
for the students to maximize the effect of the intervention itself. Once the correct intervention has been chosen and implemented, you need to evaluate the effects of the intervention. To evaluate
the effects of the intervention, you first need to determine if the intervention was provided as planned and was the amount of time sufficient. So, you're going to take a look at the data that you
have regarding the progress monitoring and you're going to determine whether or not there was enough time in that timeframe to provide the correct intervention. For example, if you have Tier 2
students or Tier 3 students who during those winter months may only get three days out of one week and maybe three days out of the next due to half days or snow days or something happens, you don't
want to think about changing their interventions right away if they're not making progress when you think back that they only actually had in that two-week time period, five days of intervention. So
you want to consider the number of days of intervention that you've provided as well as consider the interventions themselves and whether or not they're working before you make changes for their
students. Then you need to look at the progress monitoring data to determine if there was sufficient progress. Another area that is of concern is whether the intervention was implemented with
fidelity. Did you, as a teacher, when you reflect back on it did you implement it with fidelity and did you use all of the intervention tools? For example, if you buy a purchased program and it tells
you that you need to use the scripted programs step by step by step and you choose to do the first part and maybe the last part but leave out the middle part. All right? Then what you need to think
about is whether or not that was actually implemented with fidelity. If you look in the back of most of the program books that you get, they will explain to you that these programs -- the research
behind these programs shows that these programs need to be used with fidelity. You need to have that consistency. So you can't have one teacher in one room doing part A and B and not -- never getting
to part C and D and another teacher doing A and C because there's no fidelity there. Everybody has to be doing the same type of thing across the intervention and the interventions have to be
implemented with fidelity. Checking for fidelity of implementation can be done actually using a direct observation by a fellow teacher. Have a fellow teacher come in and take a look at what you're
doing and actually just say, "I need you to listen to this -- to this intervention that I'm doing." And then actually have them watch what you're doing and make a checklist. Did I follow the script
as it was stated? Did I do it within the timeframe? Did I provide the student with all of the pieces that go along with the intervention? It is extremely important. And I know, as a teacher myself,
in the early years, it was very difficult to want to have someone to come in to your classroom and actually work with you or observe you doing this. So you want to get somebody that you trust that
will provide those feedback, that positive reinforcement, that positive feedback that you need to know whether or not you're actually implementing these interventions with fidelity. And that is what
is going to increase your student's achievement. Many of the programs that we have actually have fidelity checklist within the back of them so check the -- check the teacher's manual, check the
owner's manual of them and see if there is a particular fidelity checklist that goes along with it. If not, they can easily be developed by a group of teachers who will look to see, are we
implementing these according to what the program says we should do and how we should use it. So one type of data that you're going to use will depend on the programs and the interventions of progress
monitoring is called a curriculum based measurement and this is -- they're often referred to as CBMs and there's one form progress monitoring data that can actually be used. So, there's an abundant
amount of research in the form of empirical studies that supports the use of CBMs and provides evidence of its reliability and validity for assessing a student's progress in mathematics
interventions. CBMs assess many skills that are embedded in the curriculum and thus can provide an adequate description of a student's strengths and areas of need. Curriculum based measurements or
CBM is a method of monitoring student educational progress through direct assessment of academic skills. CBM can be used to measure basic skills in reading, mathematics, spelling, and written
expression. For the purpose of this video, we're going to focus strictly on the mathematic CBM. It can also be used to monitor readiness skills. When using CBM, the instructor gives the student brief
timed samples or probes made up of academic material taken from the child's school curriculum. These CBM probes are given under standardized conditions. For example, the instructor will read the same
directions every time that he or she gives a certain type of CBM probe. Remember, it goes back to fidelity of implementation as well. CBM probes are timed and they last from one to five minutes
depending on the skill being measured. The child's performance on the CBM probe is scored for speed or fluency and for accuracy of performance. Since CBM probes are quick to administer and simple to
score, they can be given repeatedly, for example, twice per week. The results then are charted to offer the instructor a visual record of a targeted child's rate of academic progress. So what are
some of the advantages of using a CBM probe? Using CBM, an instructor can quickly determine the average academic performance of a classroom by comparing a child -- given a child's CBM performance in
basic skill areas to this classroom -- to this class, particular classroom or local norms, the teacher can better judge whether the child's school skills are sufficiently -- I'm sorry, significantly
delayed in relation to those of their classmates. CBM has different -- other benefits as well. It's a -- has a good overlap with the curriculum because CBM probes are made of materials taken from
local curriculum, there's an appropriate overlap between classroom instruction and the testing materials used. In effect, CBM allows the teacher to better test what is being taught. Another benefit
is they're quick to administer. When giving CBM math probes, the examiner can choose to administer them individually or to groups of students. There are two types of CBM math probes, a single skill
worksheet containing a series of similar problems while multiple skill worksheets contain a series of mixed problems that require different math operations. No matter which type of math probe is used
the student is given the worksheet and proceeds to complete as many items as possible within two minutes. More traditional approaches to scoring computational math problems usually give credit for
the total number of correct answers appearing on a worksheet. In contrast to this all or nothing marking system, CBM assigns credit to each individual correct digit appearing in the solution to a
math fact by separately scoring each digit in the answer of a computation problem. The instructor is better bale to recognize and to give credit for a student's partial math competencies. For
example, this addition problem that you are seeing here on the left is a two-digit -- has a two-digit answer. The addition problem has -- it is 12 + 5 = 17, if a student correctly gave the answer to
the problem as 17, that student would receive a score of two correct digits. They got the correct digit in the ones place and they got the correct digit in the tens place. In the subtraction problem,
the student -- I'm sorry. In the second addition problem, the student actually did not get the correct score in the -- in the ones place, they said that 2 + 5 was 8, but however they didn't get the
correct score in the tens place so they are given a score of one correct digit because they did, out of that two-digit number, get one of those digits correct. The important elements of CBM probes
are that's -- that they're standardized and they include the following. They include materials, directions for administration, time limit, and scoring rules. And it is extremely important to remember
that your teachers learn how to understand the scoring, how to do the scoring, and the scoring rules that go along with it. These goes along with the fidelity of implementation of your progress
monitoring tools. So, how are CBM scores used? The student takes the CBM either weekly for Tier 3 students or twice a month for those students receiving support at tier level 2 and their scores are
graphed. This graph demonstrates the student's progress toward a goal. And on the next slide, I'm going to show you exactly what a graph looks like of two students who took the CBM. However, if the
-- if the scores are flat or fluctuate drastically, then the student is not making adequate progress and it's extremely important that you look at these but also keep in my mind those areas that we
discussed earlier. The fidelity of implementation of the intervention, has the student been receiving this intervention on a weekly basis when you actually progress monitor for Tier 3 students? Did
the student receive at least five days of intervention before that next progress monitoring probe was done or did they only get two or three? And that is something that you need to have in the
documentation to completely understand how to use the data and read it and interpret it once you have all of it together before you make a drastic change in the student's intervention. Teachers can
use CBM scores to determine which skills across the curriculum. They might need to have more -- skills that the students might lack across the curriculum where they might need to say, "Okay. That's
-- this whole class needs this," or "95% of this class needs it, so we're going to this as a review and we're going to use it." It's important to note that Dr. Ed Shapiro has a video on the rate of
improvement that talks about the actual rate of improvement versus the expected rate of improvement and this video is accessible to teachers and administrators and can provide you some very valuable
information. So, let's look at some CBM Computational Fluency Norms. This is an example of CBM's research norms from math for computational fluency in grades one to three. There is a separate norms
-- table for grades four and higher and it can be found at the website at the bottom of this page. This is on the bottom of this page, the slide itself. So, let's talk about the CBM Computation
Fluency Norms. We have on the left the level. We have frustration, instructional, mastery. Now, those are the levels that are listed for the CBM Computational Fluency Norms. We could also say that
mastery would be benchmark, instructional is strategic, and frustration would be intensive. In other words, in putting those in tier levels, we have mastery is Tier 1, instructional is Tier 2, and
frustration is Tier 3. So, if a student -- if you give a student a CBM math probe -- a fluency probe and they only get zero to nine digits correct per minute then they are actually scoring at the
frustration level, did they get eight or more digits incorrect per minute, they're scoring at the frustration level, ten to nineteen correct digits per minute for instructional level, Tier 2, and
three to seven digits incorrect for instructional at Tier 2 -- at Tier 2. Twenty or more digits correct per minute tells you that those students have mastered it and they are on benchmark. Two or
fewer digits incorrect also tells you that they -- those have to be held in conjunction. They have to have at least 20 or more and they have to have two or few -- two or fewer incorrect. So, you have
to look at those and look at the -- both the digits correct per minute and the digits incorrect per minute because they have to be held in conjunction. So, here is an example of a slide that shows
you a graph of two student scores. And this is how we're actually going to talk about using the data. So, how are CBM scores used? The students take the CBM either weekly, Tier 3 students, or twice a
month for your Tier 2 students, and their scores are graphed. This graph demonstrates the students' progress over a six-week period beginning with the bench lines -- baseline score. Remember, it's
always important to get that first baseline score when you're thinking about using data. If the graph scores are increasing each time the student takes a CBM, then the student is progressing.
However, if the scores are flat or fluctuate drastically, then the student is not making adequate progress and is not benefiting from the intervention. Research provides estimates of much progress
students should typically make. This is referred to as the slope. The teacher can compare the slopes of the students in the class to determine if the students are making adequate progress. It's
important also to remember, as we take a look at this, let's take a look at Trevor first. Trevor is the scores on the top of -- the top graph in the blue. And let's take a minute to look at Trevor's
scores. Trevor scored 20 as a baseline and then the first week, Trevor dropped down. After that, Trevor made increases, not drastic increases but Trevor is making increases, all right? So, we could
look at this and say, "Well, the intervention is working for Trevor. He is making increases. However, is he making those increases enough?" Well, let's take a look. You want to take a look at the --
you want to have at least six data points to take a look at in order to determine whether or not Trevor is really making progress. So, let's take a look at the last six data points which are all the
points beyond the baseline number. Okay? We see that Trevor scored lower than 20 on his first data point past baseline. After that, Trevor does make an increase, it is -- it is a small increase but
he is making an increase. Another thing you might do is try to offer maybe a few more minutes or offer some types of strategies for Trevor to keep this increase going. However, Rebecca is a different
story. Let's take a look at Rebecca. Rebecca's baseline scored around 14-15, she increased the first week, increased the second week, dropped down on week three, pretty much leveled out on week four
and then dropped down for five and six. So, as I said earlier, let's take a look at the last five data points which leaves out the very first baseline score on this particular student. So, we're
going to take a look at that and we see that out of those six -- one, two, three, four -- four of them she dropped down on and two were increases but not significant increases. So, one thing you
might look at for this before you drastically change the intervention -- let's go back and talk about that. One thing you might look at for Rebecca is, is the intervention being implemented with
fidelity? Has Rebecca -- has her attendance been good and has she been there for every single intervention class that she had? Because that's extremely important too, if you have a student who's
coming in for interventions and they don't actually attend the entire time that -- maybe they're out sick for two or three days with the flu, something of that nature then you have two or three days
that that student did not received those interventions and you can expect that maybe they might drop down a little bit on that. So, you want to make sure that you're reading the data correctly before
you make any drastic decisions about changing the actual intervention itself. So, take into consideration all of these things, fidelity of implementation of the actual intervention, fidelity of
implementation of the CBM or the progress monitoring tool, how many days absent was she during this time period, how many days or intervention did the student actually get as opposed to how many days
were on the schedule for this student to get? Take all of that into consideration, if in fact you are finding that all of that -- that the intervention was implemented with fidelity, that the
progress monitoring tool was implemented with fidelity, that Rebecca was there for every single intervention, that she did not miss any, that there were no misses in the interventions across the time
period due to school being closed or anything of that nature, then you want to go back and say maybe this intervention isn't working for Rebecca and we need to find something that will work better
for her. Now, keep in mind, whatever they're going to have to do in the interventions, they need to be able to transfer to the general classroom. So, there is that transference that also needs to
take place as well. So, let's summarize this. Students who might require interventions at tier level three for some skills might also require interventions at tier level two for other skills. That
goes along with that whole fluctuation that we discussed in the very first part of the video where students are not stagnant across tiers. They may have a skill that they have a deficit in, that
they're in Tier 3 in but they may also have skills that, yeah, they just need a little refining on that they're n tier level two for. The movement from tier level to tier level can sometimes be fluid
and for some students because they may have skill deficits in one area and not another, they often are left in one tier level. And you need to think of the tier levels based on those particular types
of skills. Throughout the whole process, it's important for teachers and administrators to keep parents involved. It is extremely important that the parents understand what types of interventions
you're giving your students, what types of progress monitoring is being done, how their child progressing? You know, what are you doing to increase their student's achievement? Parents can be an
integral component of what you are doing if the student needs more practice at home, you can provide that practice to the parents with specific instructions on how to help their child, they can then
implement that at home and provide that student with extra practice but it is extremely important that we keep parents involved in all of this. So, there are some final considerations to note. Were
the interventions that you used being supported by scientific research? That is an important aspect of it as well. You need to look to see if there was sufficient scientific research that showed that
these students were able to make -- that this intervention worked with a general group of students, not just students that were chosen for a particular program. Oftentimes, programs will choose --
will have a group of students and they will say, "This worked for this group of students." But the demographics within that students may be limited. There may not be a high number of students who are
receiving special ed services in that group. There may not be a high number of students of different ethnic background or different cultural backgrounds within that group. So, it's extremely
important when you're looking at the research to understand that all of these need to be part of the research demographics in order to know whether or not it's generalizable across most schools in
most districts in this day and age. So, were the fidelity checks in place? Did they have fidelity checks, did you do fidelity checks, did you come up with your own? Those are important
considerations. Were the teachers or -- and/or staff, the coaches trained sufficiently? Oftentimes, programs will offer that you have the teachers -- we're going to train your teachers and that only
happens for the first year. The next year, you come in with a whole new group of teachers and those teachers aren't actually trained on that program, so there's a greater risk of them not being able
to utilize this program correctly and use it with fidelity for the students with -- across interventions or progress monitoring. So, it's important that you know and that it's discerned up above --
in the beginning when you start out, do these students actually -- do these programs actually help these students, and what types of training are my teachers going to need and is it going to a
continual ongoing training that they need to have? And you also need to consider whether or not your interventions were delivered for a sufficient amount of time. And that is the end of this video
and any questions, we have an FAQ on our PaTTAN website that you are more than welcome to go to. We have a math -- resources and math website where you will be provided with an enormous amount of
information as well as being able to get information about RtII and how it fits within your program, your school, how it might work, and you will see all of the module -- videos for modules one
through five up on our website shortly. Thank you very much.
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