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The broadcast is now starting.
All attendees are in listen only mode.
Okay, we're going to get started but before we do, I just want to make sure
that you were able to access the handout.
You can see on the slide, the handout is available at the PaTTAN website and I'm going
to take you to that now so that you can see how do download it.
So on the PaTTAN website over here under Training, if you go down to word Calendar
and click on Calendar that will take you to December calendar,
scroll down until you get to the 19th.
Click on the name of the training which Hot Topics in Behavior
and this is the one that's called Tier 2 Supports: Beyond Check in Check out.
You click over on handouts right here and it will allow you to download right there.
So that's how you can get in the handout and now we're going to get started.
So thank you so much for joining us for our webinar today entitled
"Tier 2 Supports: Beyond Check in and Check out."
My name is Diane Funsten and I'm here with my colleague Donna Salkin and we're both
from the PaTTAN office in King of Prussia.
This webinar we're doing today is actually part of a series, the Hot Topics in Behavior series.
And the first one was done back in October on the topic of Function-based Approach
to Dealing with Problem Behavior.
This is the second part of the series today and then the third one will
in February and the topic is De-Escalation.
And Donna is going to remind you about those toward the ends of our presentation today.
If you're joining us for this webinar and all likelihood,
you're currently implementing a school-wide positive behavior support framework your school
or your district.
Today, we're going to talk about various Tier 2 supports that you may or may not be aware of.
As you know, school-wide positive behavior support involves a multi-tiered system
And we look to check in /check out as the first Tier 2 intervention to implement.
Many of you are probably implementing Check-In/Check-Out a lot.
It's a practice we've talked about throughout all of our trainings and you'll find
on the internet that there are a lot of resources for check in and check out.
And we're going to refer you to some of those a little bit later on.
We wanted to go beyond Check-In/Check-Out as a Tier 2 intervention and to use this webinar
to suggest a continuum of Tier 2 supports, which are still focused on groups of students rather
than individual students like Tier 3 intervention would be.
So in the first half of this webinar, I'll be reviewing a little bit of Tier 1
and the first three levels of Tier 3
and then Donna will cover another Tier 2 intervention, Check & Connect.
Before we do that though, we want to just reiterate PaTTAN's mission which is
to support the initiatives of the Bureau of Special Ed, and to build the capacity
of local education agencies who provides special Ed services to students with disabilities.
And just to let you know that PaTTAN supports PDE's commitment
to the least restrictive environment and our goal is that every IEP team begins
with consideration of placing the student
in the general education setting using supplementary aids
and services before it considers a more restrictive setting.
So these are our outcomes for today.
We'll be talking about three levels of Tier 2 supports and about interventions
that are typically available at Tier 2.
We're going to give you some pretty extensive information
about the Check & Connect intervention toward the--
for the second of part of the presentation.
By participating in this webinar,
you have access to two Act 48 credits contingent upon submitting the answers to questions
that we're going to ask throughout the presentation.
You will have to submit your answers through this link.
So I'm going to take you in and show you how you're going to do that.
Okay. So it's just telling in here that you have access to two Act 48 hours,
the first thing you need to do is to just hit the button Submit and that will get you started.
Then you complete the demographics.
Here, right in there, number 3 is where you're going to enter the five-letter code.
The five letters correspond to five questions that we're going to ask and the five the answers
that you're going to answer the questions with.
And then you fill in the rest of the questions and then you get down here and hit submit.
So unless you complete that form, you will not be able to get the Act 48 credits,
so hopefully, you'll be okay doing that.
Okay. Here you see our infamous triangles, our School-Wide System for Student Success,
particularly important feature of school-wide positive behavior supports and response
to instruction and intervention is an emphasis on prevention.
And you will notice very similar types
of preventive supports on both sides of the triangle.
The right side shows the behavioral systems.
So we have Tier 1 or Primary Prevention in which all students are exposed
to a core social behavior curriculum to prevent the development of problem behavior
and to identify student whose behaviors are not responsive to that core.
About 80 to 90 percent of students should be responsive to Tier 1.
Tier 2 or Secondary Prevention is when supplemental social behavior support is added
to Tier 1 to reduce the current number and intensity of problem behavior.
And about 5 to 15 percent of students need more than just Tier 1.
Tier 3 or Tertiary Prevention is when individualized
and intensive behavior support is developed to reduce complications,
intensity and severity of existing problem behavior.
And hopefully, only about one to five percent
of your students need more intensive support available at Tier 3.
This upside down triangle reminds us that the supports we put in place for all students
at Tier 1 give us the biggest payoff and therefore are shown
as the widest part of the triangle.
When students need more than universal supports, Tier 2 and 3 supports are available for them
and the hope is that there will be smaller numbers
of students requiring these more intensive supports
because of the strong foundation at Tier 1.
On the left side of this triangle are the data sources we use
to determine the need for additional supports.
On the right side are some of the interventions commonly used listed in increasing levels
of intensity, and we would consider them to be our practices.
This graphic of establishing a system of behavioral supports to achieve social competence
and academic achievement is really the foundation of PBiS.
As teachers, we often focus on the practices but when developing your system,
you need to develop the data, systems and practice as pieces.
The purpose is to develop positive student outcomes and we do this through the interaction
of the data, the practices and the systems.
The use of data support-- the use of data on the right-hand side
of the graphic supports decision making, so you may be using things like SWIS,
School-Wide Information System or Skyworth [phonetic]
or maybe you're using Check-in/Check-out data.
Practices, the bottom of the graphics, supports student behavior
so you may be implementing things like the Principal's 200 Club or tickets--
giving tickets for appropriate classroom behavior.
Or maybe you're using FBA or other behavior assessments.
Maybe you have a friendship group in place or you're offering individual counseling.
Those are all what we would call practices because they support student behavior.
The piece on the left is the systems' piece and this is the part that supports staff behavior.
So hopefully, you have in place things like professional development time
to teach the faculty how to implement and use the interventions.
That you have meeting time protected for teams.
That you've developed lesson plans and have a schedule for delivering those lesson plans.
That you have a system for analyzing and sharing school-wide data.
There have been many efforts focused on remediating academic
and behavioral difficulties in years gone by.
Things like instructional support teams and multidisciplinary teams.
But often, these practices utilize--
it's a student problem approach and do not consider the potential effect
of the student's surroundings or environment on the behavior.
School-wide positive behavior supports is different.
Because we know that behavior is learned and it's contextual, we know that we need
to look first at the student's environment
to see how it might be impacting on student behavior.
So it's not so much, what about the students is causing the performance discrepancy?
Instead we need to ask, what about the interaction of the curriculum, instruction,
learners and learning environment should be altered so that the students will learn?
And obviously, that's a really big shift for folks to make.
This graphic shows the teaming structure of the 3-Tiered System of Supports
from universal/Tier 1 on the left all the way through to tertiary/Tier 3 on the right.
And we're going to be referring to these graphics throughout the webinar.
So we look at the teaming structure at each tier and we talked about things
like who is on the team of that tier.
What do they do?
What's the function or purpose of the team?
What practices are in place at that level?
Let's start with the universal or Tier 1 team on the left.
This team is responsible for planning school-wide and classroom-wide supports.
At Tier 1, we're talking about all students supported by all staff.
It's all about teaching and celebrating new learning.
The second theory or Tier 2 systems team is where we will focus this webinar.
We're going to talk about who is on the team,
what the team does and what practices they monitor.
This is the team that uses process data to determine overall intervention effectiveness.
Tier 2 also has a problem solving team and that uses a brief function behavioral assessment
and behavioral intervention plan process to look at students one
at a time moving towards this most intensive support which is the tertiary or Tier 3 team.
And this team of course is concerned with students
who are receiving a complex behavioral intervention plan or even wrap around services.
This is a blank graphic of the 3-Tiered System of Supports that will help you
to see the supports you already have in place.
So right now, I'm going to ask you to complete the universal systems component
over on the left and include these parts.
In this box in here and you can just to this on your handout,
just write in that people who part of that universal team.
It doesn't have to be people's name, it can be roles.
In here, put in the practices that you have in place and down here, type in the decision rules
that are in place that help the team know when students need to move from Tier 1 to Tier 2.
And I need to tell you that very often, folks have an easy time of filling in the team
and the practices but the part down here is really where they struggle because very often,
a decision rule hasn't been established.
So I'm going to give you just a minute or two to fill in those three boxes.
[ Pause ]
Okay. Some of you had questions about the SurveyMonkey link and Donna sent it out again
and there will be another slide at the end that will help you--
we'll give you time to jot that down.
So let's see, as you completed you're ass-- this little assignment here--
this little activity, probably what you ended up putting in this box here where things
like the building's principal, our representatives from general Ed and special Ed,
you may have reading specialist on team, department heads, guidance counselors,
perhaps paraprofessionals, maybe a parent or two,
then perhaps a representative group of students.
For practices, you probably wrote down things like Principal's 200 Club, Student of the Week,
Cool Tools and acknowledgement system and maybe things like reward assemblies.
And down here in the data of a decision rule, hopefully, you had something to put in
and maybe you wrote in something like when the student has received three office discipline
referrals, they are referred to the secondary systems team.
Or perhaps, you talk about a student with excessive absences.
Or perhaps, as kind of a general rule in your school, you put students who are new
to the school right into in the secondary system teams perhaps into check-in/check-out system.
So those are some of things that would probably be in place at Tier 1.
By the way, if you're not currently implementing school-wide positive behavior supports
but you might be interested in getting in started,
you can look tat the Pennsylvania PBS website for a look list
of trained facilitators to contact.
And that website is www.papbs.org, www.pabpsp org.
Okay. So how do we define Tier 2?
Well Tier 2 interventions are intended to impact the behavior of students
who have similar behavior problems or causes for their behavior.
Student at Tier 2 may be at risk for developing chronic behavior problems
but do not need the high intensity interventions typical of Tier 3 interventions.
It's typical for a targeted group of intervention to have about 10 or more students.
At Tier 2, these intervention groups might include students who could benefit
from daily monitoring or increase feedback and adult mentor,
a simple behavior plan coordinating between home and school.
It may include students who need more academic or organizational support.
It may be for students who could benefit from alternative suspension.
Once a school has Tier 1 in place, the team very often wants to establish Tier 2 right away.
But a school is really only ready to implement a Tier 2 system
when that universal system is very strongly in place
and it's implemented consistently and with fidelity.
And we have some measures that tell us if that's happening so we look for a mea--
a score of at least a 70 on the Benchmarks of Quality or an 80/80
on the School-Wide Evaluation Tool.
To begin Tier 2, a school also needs to have a data system in place
or documenting office discipline referrals and that system should include data
on the problem behavior, on the time of day, the location, the possible motivation,
others who may be have been involved in the incident and the administrative decision
that was taken as a result of the problem behavior.
Some big ideas about Tier 2 and Tier 3 are that at risk students don't need different supports.
They need more intensive supporters that are based on what's in place for Tier 1.
Things like clearly defined expectations and frequent feedback
and consistency and positive reinforcement.
All the things that are in place at Tier 1, at risk students just need a little more.
As you know, problem behavior and academic success are often linked.
You know when you're completing a functional behavioral assessment,
very often the antecedent events or the triggers are often identified to be academic tasks.
And you begin to ask the question which came first,
the behavior problem or the academic deficiency.
So we need to blend that RTII pyramid that we saw earlier with academic supports on one side
and behavior on the other and we need to address both.
Behavior supports begins with the development of effective adult-student relationships.
A reoccurring team across tiers 2 and 3 is relationships.
We can put all the supports in place
but if there's no relationship built then the supports will not be successful.
And Donna is going to touch more on the importance of relationships
when she talks a list about Check & Connect.
Some more big ideas about tiers 2 and 3 and these statements are really important
so put a little star next to the bullets.
Actually, there's an empty bullet in there, you don't have to start that one.
You need to remember to continue to acknowledge students who are receiving Tier 2
and Tier 3 supports for following the behavioral expectations at Tier 1.
Tier 1 is the foundation and students who were receiving Tier 2
and Tier 3 supports also are receiving Tier 1.
And administrators play a key role.
Without high levels of their support, your system will not work.
So let's talk about administrative support.
At the school level, administrator involvement is a nonnegotiable
to ensure the success of the school-wide efforts.
The building principal does not have to be the leader of the team but he
or she needs to be an active participant.
The administrator needs to be aware of the tools that are being used
to track the Tier 2 and 3 interventions.
They have to know how to analyze the data to help to decide when and where change needs
to happen and those decisions of course are based on data.
That person also needs to ensure that systems are in place to support staff behavior.
We talked about systems before.
Things like protect the team time, financial support to purchase things
for your acknowledgment system if you need to, scheduling
and on going communication among the teams.
So let's stop for a minute now and ask the first question.
This is the first question that you are expected to answer so let me read it to you,
and then we're going to give you a few time to select A, B, C, or D.
Which of the following best describes the big ideas related to Tier 2?
A, there is a link between academic and social success.
B, all students get access to PBS.
All students should receive constant positive feedback.
C, administrators need to know the system, the data tools, and practices well enough to guide
or lead any corrections that are needed, or D, all of the above.
So you can select A, B, C, or D and we'll check back in with you in just a minute.
[ Pause ]
Okay. So you did really well.
92 percent of you selected the answer D and that's right.
All of these things, A, B, C-- A, B, and C are the big ideas related to Tier 2.
Now you need to keep track of your answers because at the end,
you're going to put those letters in to your SurveyMonkey.
So write it down or circle it or something 'cause you need
to keep track of the five answers.
Okay. All right, so who is on the secondary systems team?
The Tier 2 team might be made up of your school administrator, your Tier 1 core team leader
or representative from your core team.
If you have secondary interventions in place, leaders of those interventions would be part
of the secondary team; perhaps a school social worker, counselor, school psychologist,
representatives from general and special Ed, perhaps your staff coordinator.
You may remember the graphic we showed earlier regarding the types of teams involved
in a multi-tiered system of supports.
It was entitled "Necessary Conversations."
Well the secondary systems are conversations about the number of students who are responding
to the interventions and the number of students who are responding.
At this level, individual student situations are not discussed.
The team is looking at aggregate data to make decisions about improving the interventions.
If most students are responding, we can draw the conclusion
that the secondary system interventions are working.
If most students are not responding,
this indicates a systems problem not a student problem.
For individual students who are responding even-- I'm sorry.
From individual students who are not responding, the team would shift perhaps
to that problem solving approach that we showed you earlier
and plans are developed for individual students.
At each tier, there should be a division of duties among team members
to avoid one person being the expert or caring all the PBS responsibilities.
Meeting logistics need consideration by the teams, such as scheduling regular meeting times
at least monthly, arranging a location of the meeting,
ensuring broad representation of team members.
Since Check-In/Check-Out is the first of the Tier 2 interventions,
a Check-In/Check-Out coordination would have to be identified.
And at the meeting, that Check-In/Check-Out coordinator would report on data
such as 50 students are in Check Out-- - Check In and Check Out and 40 are responding.
So notice, we're not saying individual students, we're talking about the aggregate number.
The Tier 3 team also will be established so the duties can be divided among teams
for staff with specialize skills.
The team may determine over time that they'd like to meet weekly as opposed
to monthly depending on the size of your building
and the level of secondary implementation.
And as part of this team, there need to be someone
to take notes and someone to monitor the time.
[ Pause ]
Data-based decision-making is huge and you know that without data, you're really just guessing.
At Tier 2, student outcome data are used to identify students in need of support
and to identify appropriate intervention.
It's used for on going progress monitoring and it's used to exit
or transition students out of interventions.
And student outcome data can include data that you would procure through universal screeners,
office discipline referrals, failing grades or failing courses, even visits to the nurse.
We know that visits to the nurse can be an indicator of internalizing behaviors.
So you want to pay attention to those and also things like high ups and theism.
The Tier 2 systems team also monitors the efficacy of the interventions
that are being implemented and makes decisions about changing those interventions.
We're going to talk about 10 Critical Features for Tier 2 Interventions.
And these critical features come from some work that was done at the University of Oregon
on an evaluation tool called the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool.
And it's designed to assess the implementation status of Tier 2 and Tier 3 systems
that are in place within a school.
These critical features that we're going to cover on this slide
and the next one are actually used to score the evaluation.
So let's look at those critical features.
Interventions at Tier 2 have to be an extension of the universal framework.
So it's Tier 1 plus more is what is Tier 2.
The Tier 2 interventions have to be continuously available for student participation.
Each student's participation should be time limited so we need to keep track
by collecting data of whether the intervention seems to be working.
It's not that the student is put in into the intervention forever.
The data will tell us when things need to change.
The Tier 2 interventions need to be implemented within about three days of determining
that the student needs the intervention.
And students need to be able to enter the intervention at the point of identification,
no waiting for the beginning of a group to start.
The students should be able to enter at the point of need.
Tier 2 interventions can be modified based on assessment outcome data.
A few more critical features, all staff are informed of the details of the interventions
so that everyone can provide positive feedback to the student.
Parents might need some training on the home school communication piece.
Everyone who interacts with a student must be trained on the intervention.
That seems kind of obvious.
Students have to have the opportunity to practice the new skills and they need
to receive reinforcement for using the new skills.
This slide outlines the four levels of intervention that make up Tier 2 supports.
This webinar is going to focus on the areas in green, those types of interventions
that go beyond Check-In/Check-Out.
So we will be looking at Tier 2 Level 2 which has to do
with Social/Academic Instructional Groups like a social skills group
or anger management or a grief group.
And we're going to be looking at Tier Level 3 which has to do
with secondary interventions with individual features.
Notice we're still not looking at individual students, still looking at groups of students.
Time for another question.
So you're going to select A, B, C, or D. A continuum of interventions
for Tier 2 would include which of the following: A, social and academic intervention groups; B,
small group interventions with individual focus; C, Check-In/Check-Out, or D, all of the above.
So you're going to select A, B, C, or D and I'm going
to check back in with you in about a minute.
[ Pause ]
Okay. Once again, most of you did really well and that the answer is D, all of the above.
And I just want to show you the graphic that I had shown you before, notice right down in here.
Secondary systems team include Check-In/Check-Out
as the very first level followed by Social/Academic Instructional Groups,
groups with individual features and then down here the Brief FBA and BPI.
So the answer to that was D, all of the above.
Okay. Well, we won't be spending a whole lot of time on check in/check-out.
We wanted to provide you a little bit of information
in case any of you aren't familiar with it.
Know that there are lots of resources on the PBiS website
and you can see the address right over here.
And that reminds me that I wanted to mention to you just a reminder that you need to keep track
of the answers to the questions 'cause you're going to have
to enter them in that SurveyMonkey link.
So, so far we've got two questions and also any of you who are using an iPad,
you won't be able to select the answers from the iPad.
I really apologize for that but that's just kind of the way that is.
Okay, so let's get back to the slide.
Again, www.pbis is the national organization.
There's a lot of information about Check-In/Check-Out
that will take you far beyond a little that we're going to go over with you today.
So Check-In/Check-Out is designed for students with moderate problem behaviors.
And the second bullet is really important here, you may want to put a circle around it.
Check-In/Check-Out has been found to be effective with behaviors
that are maintained by adult or peer attention.
So it's a great intervention to use when the function is attention.
Understand that this intervention can also be used with some modification
with the student whose behavior is maintained by escape and avoidance.
Some other things about check-in/check-out are that students "check-in" with an adult
at the start of each school day and they "check-out"
with an adult at the end of each school day.
And during the day, they carry around a daily progress report
that contains the school-wide expectations and they take it to each of their teachers
after class and the teachers rate them on how they are following the school-wide expectations.
At the end of each day, the students take that daily progress report home to their parents
so they're getting feedback from their parents as well.
Check-In/Check-Out is research based and it's recommended
because it's not very staff intensive.
Remember that it is intended for groups of students so all students who are in need
of a Tier 2 Level 1 intervention get the same system with the same procedures.
Some teams struggle with implementing a generic intervention.
They want to individualize right away and Check-In/Check-Out can be individualized
but the more you individualize it, the higher the level of intervention it becomes
and the more staff intervention that's needed.
And it really becomes something more like mentoring which we are going
to talk about in just a little bit.
Teams need to decide how students will get in to Check-In/Check-Out.
They need to decide how student progress will be monitored
and how a student would end-- would exit the intervention.
We have a few examples of decision-rules on the next slide.
Because students are moving into Tier 2 from Tier 1, it's important for the Tier 1 team
to be aware of the number of students that are moving.
If a lots of kids are moving into Tier 2, it's a red flag that Tier 1 is not being effective.
And because all of the students' teachers must review that daily progress report
with the student, that DPR, Check-In/Check-Out requires a building level commitment.
All staff needs to be aware of it and how to implement it.
So here are some examples of decision-rules that a Tier 2 team might identify.
Remember, this is just a sample, you're team might choose
to establish different decision points.
So to identify a student for Check-In/Check-Out, the student might be identified by data
from a universal screener or it maybe that the student has three
or more office discipline referrals early on in the school year.
Other data to consider might be their daily progress report points that they earn each day.
You can also think about things like suspensions and attendance and tardiness and visits
to the nurse and follow questionnaires that might have been given to teachers
or family member or even to the student.
For progress monitoring, you would probably use the Daily Progress Report data that's collected
daily and reviewed every other week.
Data are collected for about 46 weeks and during that time,
we're looking to see how well the intervention is working.
To exit a student from Check-In/Check-Out, you may decide that if the student receives a total
of 80 percent of their points per day--
per week for four straight weeks and had no new office discipline referrals,
that student might be transitioned into being a Check-In/Check-Out student monitor.
So those are the kind of decision-rules that have to be made about this intervention.
So we have talked about the Tier 2 Level 1 intervention,
this right here, Check-In/Check-Out.
If a student is responding adequately, the team would decide to keep this intervention in place.
They may decide to modify the intervention to get into some sustainability issues.
So maybe we would have the student begin to do some self-assessing or maybe have
that student not check-in at the beginning and the end of each day or you may decide
to exit the student from the intervention completely.
When a student is not responding adequately to Check-In/Check-Out,
the Tier 2 systems team might decide to support the student with the next level.
This level down here, Social/Academic Instructional Group,
this is what we would call a Tier 2 Level 2 intervention or the team may decide to move
on to an even more intensive support.
So we're going to move down right here to the SAIG, the Social/Academic Instructional Group.
At this Tier 2 level, we still look at common needs across groups of students
and we group the students accordingly.
There are different types of Social/Academic Instructional Groups.
You can see them on the slide.
You may have groups that focus on pro-social skills, so maybe you'll have lunch
or a recess group, a friendship group,
a changing family's group and anger management group.
You might be working on problem-solving skills that would focus on conflict resolution
or understanding the social consequences of one's actions.
There may be a need for an academic behavior skills club.
So maybe there would be a study skills club or a homework club or a math club.
If you are implementing Social/Academic Instructional Groups, you need to think about
and establish procedures for how often you're collecting data on student outcomes
and on what kind of data you are collecting.
Assignment into the Social/Academic Instructional Groups should be based
on a student's reaction to life circumstances not
because the situation happened but how a student reacted to it.
So for example, if a student is fighting with peers in reaction to parent divorce,
that's a good reason to put the student into perhaps in anger management group.
Or you're putting the student in because of the fighting not because the divorce happened.
Also goals for improvement should be common across students in the same group.
So for example in anger management group, perhaps all the students are working
on the skill of using your words when you get angry.
The data needs to measure if the skills are being used in the generalized setting.
So we're looking for the student to use the skill not only
in a group session but in the classroom.
And students, teachers, and family should have input into the success of the intervention
and certainly using that progress report that we use
in Check-In/Check-Out would be a way to do that.
So some questions that you need ask
about Social/Academic Instructional Groups include how does the student get started
in the group?
Is it done through teacher referral?
Do you need to get consent from the family?
What's the time frame for the group?
How long will the student receive intervention before student data are reviewed?
How are the student data tracked?
How are the students data collected?
And those are all decisions that very often are not in place around these social skills
and academic-- Social/Academic Instructional Groups.
Very often they are in place and they just sort of continue
without people really thinking seriously
about collecting the data to help shape those decisions.
Here are some critical features of social academic constructional groups.
It's important to leak-- to link the specific group goals to those school-wide expectations.
So if the school-wide expectations are be safe, be responsible and be respectful,
the goals of the social/academic group should be very similar.
You need to make sure that any prompts that are in place that are taught to the student for what
to do in relevant situations are passed on to the students' teachers.
So for example if we use a prompt of count to 10 or walk away or take a deep breath,
the students' teachers need to be aware of that.
We want to see the new behavior generalizes into other school settings as I had mentioned before.
So when you get angry with the test score just like we practiced
in our group, remember to turn the paper over.
Social/Academic Instructional Groups result in students receiving positive feedback from staff
but all staff needs to be aware of what's happening within the group.
Remember that acknowledgments should be given for using those new skills being taught
in the group and those groups should include a school-home communication exchange system
at least weekly.
And again, you can use the Daily Progress Report to do that.
So what kinds of interventions would you use for group interventions?
Well, you can use either pre-packaged curricula or you can create your own programs.
Pre-packaged materials might be things like bully proofing your school, stop and think,
skills training, or the tough kids social skills curriculum.
And some if the things that you may design in your school are Cool Tools' lesson plans
that will directly teach the replacement behaviors or things
like new comers club or lunch bunch or a grief group.
So I'm going to ask you now, if you would go over to the chat box that you have accessed to
and just type in some of the Social/Academic Instructional Groups
that you haven't place currently in your school and we'll take a look
and see what you've come up with.
[ Pause ]
Wow, thank you so much.
You guys are doing a ton of things out there.
I'm going to just read a few of them.
It just keeps coming in.
So you haven't place things like lunch bunch.
You have anger management, you have lunch buddies, you have organizational groups,
you have girl problem groups, you have a coping cat curriculum in a small group,
you have Check-In/Check-Out, you have chat time,
you have bully free [inaudible], you have peer mediations.
So those are exactly the kinds of things that we're talking about having in place
and it's very exciting to hear you've mentioned all of those things.
I would just encourage you to please go back and talk to the folks in your Tier 2 systems team
about the fact that there need to be dated decisions in place
about how well the interventions are working.
So thank you so much.
That was terrific.
Okay. And I want to just remind you also that social skills need to be taught just
like academic lessons are taught.
They need to be taught explicitly.
And so this slide just reminds you of that social skills lessons need
to include the same kinds of things that you define the behavior expectation in terms
of observable student behaviors, that you model the appropriate student behaviors.
You give that students opportunity-- lots of opportunities to practice the behaviors
and you reinforce those behaviors.
So you need to teach it, practice it, reinforce it and then monitor to see
if it's generalizing into the larger settings.
We also need to determine criteria for how students will exit the group.
We've talked about having criteria for moving students in.
When a student is responding adequately whatever that adequately--
however that adequately is defined by the team, the team will decide
to either keep the intervention in place, modify it for sustainability
or exit the student from that intervention.
So when a student is not responding adequately with a social, academic instruction group,
the team may decide to support the student with the next level which is
at Tier 2 intervention right in here with individual features,
which we would consider to be a Tier 2 Level 3 support.
And what you need to notice is that every-- as we move down the levels of Tier 2,
the interventions become a little more time intensive and a little more staff intensive.
But notice that we are still developing interventions for groups of students.
The Tier 2 systems team may decide after a student has not responded to the Check-In/Check
Out or has not responded to group--
participation in a group that an individualized feature needs to be added to Check-In/Check Out.
So essentially what you're doing is tailoring the Check-In/Check
Out group intervention more toward the needs of a student or a small group of students in a way
that provides them more feedback and more opportunities for teaching and reinforcement.
So we talked about this Level 3 as Check-In/Check Out with individualized features.
And we're going to look at some of those features on the next couple of slides.
Individualized Check-In/Check Out could include things
like one adult has scheduled check-in times with the student
or a few students throughout the day rather than just before school and after school.
You could use peer support instead of, or in addition to, adult support.
You might add a check-in before a problematic time of day like before lunch or before gym
or whatever difficult time of day a student or a group of students may have.
You may decide to have a buddy accompany the student
when they're doing their checking in and checking out.
So remember this is Check-In/Check Out with some individualized features.
As you can tell from the examples on that previous slide,
individual features are fairly generic.
These interventions would continue to use a daily progress report like you use
with Check-In/Check Out except that the goals on this report would be goal specific
to the student rather than the school-wide expectations that are
on the typical Check-In/Check Out daily progress report.
Another group intervention with individualized features that we can think about is mentoring.
While mentoring is provided for individual students,
the system is set up for groups of students.
Probably the most common type of mentoring is mentoring with school staff before school;
of course, it can also be after school.
Just wanted to remind you that if the mentors or school employees, it's important to provide them
with professional development about mentoring and about expectations.
They should understand what their role is and what it isn't.
And policies and procedures should be developed for the mentors.
If the mentors come from community agencies, perhaps a memorandum
of understanding would be needed.
Also, any clearances you need to be done.
And you would of course follow the same guidelines for community mentors
as you would for district employees.
And this is where the district and community leadership team may be able to link resources
from the community to address certain needs using organizations like big brothers,
big sisters, police athletic league, boys and girls club.
So now we're going to take a look at yet another question.
This is the third question and this is asking when creating a Tier 2 system of support,
the first intervention you would use is generally Check & Connect,
Social/Academic Instruction Groups, Detention or Check-In/Check Out.
I'm going to give you a moment to decide A, B, C, or D.
[ Pause ]
Okay, so about 70 percent of you selected Check-In/Check Out.
And again, I just want to show you the graphic again,
we would always start Tier 2 interventions with Check-In/Check Out.
It's the most-- it's the one that is the least staff intensive.
It's put in place the same way for all students.
However, you may begin to have to move down to work more intensity
which should be those Social/Academic Instructional Groups moving
down to Check-In/Check Out with individual features.
And we have just one more Tier 2 Level 3 intervention to talk about
and that is a program called Check & Connect which Donna is going to cover.
I just want to remind you one last time to keep track of the answers to your questions.
So far we have answered three questions.
Donna, take it away.
[ Pause ]
Sorry about that and thank you for hanging in there.
I had a bit of a technical difficulty.
And now it wants to cancel me out of the webinar.
I don't think we're going to do that.
Okay. The next intervention we're going to be talking
about this afternoon is an intervention called Check & Connect.
On this screen, what you're seeing is a picture of the front of the Check & Connect manual.
So, you may have seen that around your school, you're maybe using it in your school.
This presentation for the next hour so we'll give you an overview of Check & Connect.
Oh, okay, I'm being told to say that the last answer was D as in David.
Check-In/Check Out, the last answer to the question was D. So make sure you are writing
down your answers for the SurveyMonkey which you will submit at the end of the webinar.
Okay, Check & Connect is a research-based intervention used with students
who are disengaged from school and learning.
The core f Check & Connect is a trusting relationship
between the student and a caring trained mentor.
The mentor both advocates for and challenges the student and partners with the family,
the school, community to keep education salient for the student.
Check refers to the systematic monitoring of student-performance variables, such as absences,
tardiness, behavioral referrals, grades.
Connect refers to the personalized timely intervention focused on problem-solving,
skill building, and confidence enhancement.
Students are referred to Check & Connect when they show warning signs of disengaging
from school, such as poor attendance, behavioral issues, and/or low grades.
Mentors work with case loads of students and families for at least two years.
I'm going to repeat that and you're going to hear that often.
The mentors work with families at least two years.
So you can see this is much more intensive than Check & Connect with mentoring.
They function as of liaison between home and school striving
to build constructive family-school relationships.
For more information after this webinar, you can refer to the link on the bottom of this slide.
Check & Connect is a Tier 2 Level 3 targeted intervention designed
to enhance student engagement.
Check & Connect addresses student engagement in school and with learning.
It is designed to promote relationship building, appropriate problem-solving,
and persistence from marginalized students.
Check & Connect compliments the universal interventions
that are already in place in your building.
These universal interventions might include things like the Principal's 200 Club,
the Student of the Week, those sorts of things that--
and rewards that are available to all students.
It's very important that students who were involved
in Check & Connect also have Tier 1 interventions available to them.
Check & Connect also promotes student engagement and participation in schools.
Participation and engagement would include academics, things like time on task,
academic-engaged time, accrual of credits.
Participation and engagement also includes behavior.
We're looking at attendance.
We're looking at fewer suspensions and we're looking at increased classroom participation.
There are also cognitive aspects of participation and engagement.
And those are such thing as perceived relevance of school work
and working toward personal goals.
Effective aspects of Check & Connect or identification with school belonging,
connections with teachers and peers.
Check & Connect also works with families to promote a positive home-school relationship.
And now, I'm going to talk a little bit about what you need
to know to implement Check & Connect.
First of all, you may adapt Check & Connect provided you retained the integrity
of the core components and elements of the model.
Star that, underline it, circle it.
That's very important.
We will be discussing four components and elements of the model in just a few minutes.
The developers of Check & Connect realize that it's important
to adapt this model to your environment.
The model must fit into school or community context into which is it's implemented in order
to be acceptable for parents, for teachers, for students.
You may have to consider issues related to resource allocations, teachers in your building,
families in your community or community professionals or agency folks.
To use Check & Connect, you must adhere to the four components and seven elements
in the application of this model.
You don't need to implement the model exactly as described in the manual.
For example, the manual discusses indicators of disengagement
in academics, behavior and attendance.
School personnel may want to identify and progress monitor other areas other
than those mentioned in the manual.
A school might want to identify students who were disengaged
on the basis of early literacy skills.
You might choose to monitor these skills to ensure improved student outcomes.
Check & Connect originally focused on high school and middle school youth
that the manual now addresses elementary school as well.
It is estimated by the Children's Defense Fund in 2002 that one in eight children
in the United States never graduate from high school.
I'm going to say that again, one in eight children
in the United States never graduate from high school.
Based on calculations per day, one high school student drops out every nine seconds.
And again that's data that's provided by the Children's Defense Fund.
So originally, the Check & Connect was focused for high school and middle school.
But what was realized that this really needs to start in elementary school.
This is a model that's supported by 18 years of research.
And it's listed in the What Works Clearinghouse as evidence-based practice.
It is considered a 'drop-out prevention' intervention.
You may think that dropping out of high school or middle school is a high school
and middle school problem, however, dropping out can begin in early elementary school
with poor academic performance and behavior problems.
The difference between the generic mentoring that I talked about in Check & Connect is
in the use of the four components in seven core elements.
We're going to look at those elements and components of Check & Connect now,
because remember, you cannot call your program Check & Connect unless you're adhering
to the information that I'm going to be providing
to you in the next part of the webinar.
Okay. Check & Connect has four components.
The key to Check & Connect is really the mentor.
The mentor is a person assigned to a specific student or students
who builds a strong relationship with that student based
on mutual trust and open communication.
The relationship between the student and the mentor is nurtured
through a long-term commitment focused on school success and learning.
This person can be called a mentor, a monitor, a graduation coach, an intervention specialist,
whatever works in your particular school environment.
The mentor works for students and partners with families for a minimum of two years.
The mentor regularly checks on the educational progress of the student,
intervenes in a timely manner to reestablish and maintain the student's connection to school
and learning and enhances the student's social and academic competencies.
In the next bullet, systematic monitoring of grades, attendance, et cetera,
I want you to circle the word "check".
Check means in Check & Connect, this is the systematic monitoring
of student performance variables.
The mentor looks for warning signs of disengagement such as attendance, grades,
behavior or referrals using the data that's available within the school.
In bullet three, the important word there is connect.
Please circle connect.
Connect refers to the timely personalized data based interventions designed to provide support,
tailored to individual student needs, based on the student engagement with the school.
So the mentor checks what's happening with the student and then connects with the student one
to one to, you know, to discuss some of those issues.
Mentors also partner with families.
They work with case loads of students and families and function
as liaisons between home and school.
And they strive to build constructive family school relationships.
Because for some of the students, you know, not only is the student's relationship
with the school [inaudible] but the school family relationship is not--
you know, not as strong as it could be.
So you can see that this is a far more intensive Tier 2 support
than the previous support guide discussed today.
So now, we're going to look at question number four, okay?
I want you take a minute and think about this.
Which is not an element of Check & Connect?
A, mentor for students and systematic monitoring; B,
conduct a functional behavior assessment; C, timely and individualized intervention; D,
enhancing home-school communication.
So write the letter which would indicate something that is not an element
of Check & Connect and we'll give you a couple of minutes to do that.
[ Pause ]
Okay. Our poll master said that 87 percent of you said B. That's correct.
Conducting in a functional behavior assessment is not an element of Check & Connect.
Remember, for Check & Connect, we're mentoring students, we're using timely
and individualized interventions, we're enhancing home school communications
and we are systematically monitoring grades and attendance.
So let's move on now.
[ Pause ]
Now, we'll discuss the seven core elements of Check & Connect.
This include relationships, problem solving, individualized data based interventions,
affiliation with school and learning, persistence plus a focus on alterable indicators
of disengagement, and following students and families.
We'll look at each element individually.
Remember, if you were calling your program Check & Connect,
you must have the four components we just discussed and the seven core elements
that we're going to discuss right now.
The first is relationships.
Relationship building as I described earlier is mutual trust and open communication nurtured
through long-term commitment, focused on student educational success.
We look at productive communication among the student, the family and the school staff
and the students' connection with school.
The resiliency research documents a strong correlation between the present
of a caring adult and positive school and post school outcomes
for you to place at risk for failure.
Also, paramount in relationships is having a trusting relationship.
Four of the seven core elements, problem-solving, individualization--
I'm sorry, individualized data based intervention, affiliation with school
and learning and the concept of persistence plus,
all contribute to trusting relationships among students, families, mentors and educators.
The second element is problem solving, a cognitive behavior approach
to promote the acquisition of skills to resolve conflict constructively, encourage the search
for solutions rather than the source of blame and foster productive coping skills.
The constant in Check & Connect is an ongoing deliberate conversation with each student.
For problem-solving, the students are guided through real
and hypothetical problems using the five steps strategy outlined on this slide.
Using this five-step strategy, consistently give students a great deal of practice
so the student becomes fluent in the use of this problem solving strategy.
The third element of Check & Connect is individualized and data-based decisions.
This is support tailored to the individual student needs based on level of engagement
with school and associated influences of home and school and local resources.
The premise of the connect component is an individualized approach
that is delivered in a timely manner.
In Check & Connect, there are two levels of student focused interventions.
The first or the basic interventions, these are the interventions that all students receive.
Regular meetings maintain the relationship established between the mentor and the student
and serve as the basis for implementing more intensive intervention as needed.
Intensive interventions are more frequent and individualized.
Intensive interventions are determined by systematic monitoring and ongoing relationship
and communication with the student, family and the school personnel.
Intensive interventions are available to students who display increased signs
of disengagement, you know, things like not coming to school or not engaging
with other students or other staff within the building.
The forth element is affiliation with school and learning.
This element addresses student access to active participation
in school related activities and events.
As you probably know, student participation in extracurricular activities is associated
with dropout prevention because there's increased supervised structure of out
of school time and the student always-- also has a sense of belonging within that activity.
For many of the students we're targeting,
gaining access to those extracurricular activities is a common barrier.
So mentors may actually have to inform the students about options, they might have to help
with scheduling, they could have to arrange transportation,
arrange to have enrollment fees waived if that's a possibility.
They may have to help the student fill out the registration or get parent permission.
They may end up going to the first meeting of the extracurricular activity
with the student or, you know, checking with program staff periodically
to make sure the student is engaging and participating appropriately in the activity.
The fifth element is Persistence-Plus.
Persistence continuity and consistency are provided concurrently to show student
that there is someone there who is not going to give up for them or allow them
to become distracted from school.
There is someone, the student knows who will be available throughout the school year,
throughout the summer and into the next school year if that support is needed by the student.
And the message is consistent, education is important for your future.
[ Pause ]
The sixth element is a focus on alterable indicators of disengagement.
Circle that word "alterable".
These are indicators of disengagement that can be changed.
The mentors systematically checks warning signs of withdrawal.
They're looking at the student attendance, the student's academic performance,
the student's behavior or behavioral referrals.
Again, they're using data that's already available to school personnel
and they can be looking at supporting the student through intervention.
Some of those alterable behavioral indicators can be kids who are tardy to school a lot,
kids who are skipping school, kids who are exhibiting high absenteeism or students
who are being suspended a great deal.
Alterable indicators of academic engagement can include course failures, accrual of credits,
fulfillment of graduation requirements.
These are all looked at and, you know, checked by the mentor and then
that mentor makes connections with the student to support the student into altering some
of those indicators that would look at a student becoming more and more disengaged to the school.
The seventh element is following students and their families.
In 1995, Check & Connect shifted from a school-based intervention to one
of which the intervention follows the students.
The feeling was that many of these kids needed to be followed
because they were highly mobile youth, their families moved from school to school,
and kids moved from program to program.
The feeling was that the benefit of Check & Connect could be lost if the youth wasn't
in school long enough to build trust and to participate in that educational community.
Now, this may be one of the areas where you would probably have to create some adaptations
and do some creative planning to follow the student.
The mentor might have to help to transition the student to another school,
perhaps set up supports within his new school or her new school or within the community
or help the family to make those connections.
So after hearing the four components and the seven elements, a school who is interested
in implementing Check & Connect as a Tier 2 support would look at the implementation steps.
And the first step is really to determine the indicators of student's disengagement.
So why do students disengage in your school?
The answers can be many.
They could be problems with teachers, getting suspended or expelled, bad grades.
They may choose to drop out because their peers are dropping out.
They may need to support their family by working or providing child care to younger siblings.
So there's lots of reasons why the students disengage and the first step is
to really determine what they are.
The second step is to identify those students who are at risk in your school
and the Check & Connect manual suggest that you follow two
or I'm sorry, four action steps to do that.
You define the population using readily accessible and reliable data sources.
You hear that a lot, you must have data.
Without data, anything else is just an opinion.
You will have to target students based on alterable risk factors
such as behavioral indicators we talked about, tardiness, referrals to the office,
detention, frequent school moves.
You could be looking at academic indicators such as failing, reading below grade level
or below proficient on standardized tests.
Cognitive indicators might include a minimal interest of school or resistance to learning
and effective indicators might look like isolation or not belonging.
In addition to considering alterable indicators just mentioned,
also consider demographic indicators such as race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status,
disability status, having a sibling or a parent who dropped out.
A combination of four variables, write these down.
Attendance, grades, grade retention, and socioeconomic status have been identified
as highly accurate predictors of dropout.
Those four variables again are attendance, grades,
grade retention, and socioeconomic status.
You determine the prevalence of the population in your school by screening
on selective risk indicators or implementing a referral process.
You would complete an intake form for targeted students that would provide information
about the student's family circumstances, demographics, and school experiences.
Samples of these tools are available in the Check & Connect manual if you decide that,
you now, you might go forward with this intervention.
The next step would be selecting and hiring mentors.
It's advisable that all mentors have at least an undergraduate degree.
Mentors must be trained in the implementation of the model.
Mentor should also have the following characteristics
and you can probably guess what many of them are.
They have to have a willingness to participate
with students despite their behavior and decision making.
Now, these are our top students that, you know, need support.
The mentor that you hire or you chose from your building should have a personal belief
that all students have abilities and strengths.
They have to be willing to collaborate with families and staff.
It should be a person who has strong advocacy skills, organizational skills,
and can negotiate, compromise, and confront conflict and someone who wants to be a mentor.
The next step is to use check procedures and a monitoring sheet.
This means systematically monitor or check the school's connection to target students.
Keep track of the student's progress using a monitoring sheet.
Mentors check monitoring using the criteria they have decided
on from the three alterable predictors of school completion: attendance, academics, and behavior.
Sample monitoring tools are also available in that Check & Connect manual.
The next step would be using existing resources whenever possible.
You may need to consider resource mapping to create a list of all that are available
with your-- within your building, your school, or your community.
Mentors are like service coordinators who broke all available services while advocating
for supplemental services for student if it's needed.
The mentor is critical in helping the student to participate in extra activities
and supplemental health and mental health services.
Mentors regularly monitor and provide timely intervention within relationship building,
problem solving, and persistence framework.
All students receive the basic intervention on a weekly basis.
If secondary students are meeting expectations, then regularly scheduled
by weekly meetings can be arranged.
It is important to connect weekly with elementary students and students
who need intensive interventions.
Also, regular team meetings with the mentors are held
to provide ongoing professional development, discussing issues that--
as they arise and also maintaining the integrity of the program.
These are some examples of Check & Connect mentoring activities.
Perhaps, you call three students before you leave for work in the morning
to make sure they are awake and getting ready to school.
If a student doesn't answer the phone, perhaps you stopped by their home to see
if they're there or leave a note for the family.
Remember, these are kids who need pretty intensive intervention.
You might meet with a child or student before the class starts.
You may meet with a social worker to discuss, you know, what some of your concerns
for a particular student or you may host a lunch for any of your student who wants to come
by and, you know, have lunch with you.
And, you know, many of those students may chose to do that.
Oops. And then, there are some critical features.
Pay attention to bullet number one that will help you
in answering the next question, give you a little prompt there.
Check & Connect includes structured prompts for what to do
in relevant situations, circle that "what to do".
You know, so often, we tell kids, you know, don't run, don't hit, don't fight
but we don't tell them what to do.
Check & Connect is very explicit.
We teach kids what to do in relevant situations.
The goals from that mentoring can be reflected
in the daily progress report especially academic related goals
like doing homework, studying, those kinds of things.
There has to be orientation materials available for everybody
who has students using this intervention and it's critical that staffs, subs, volunteers,
everybody understand how to implement Check & Connect.
It's important to have a home-school communication system at least weekly,
that's a huge part of Check & Connect.
It's not just about the student and the school.
It's about the student, the school and the home.
And then again, as I talked about here earlier, decision rules,
how does a student enter Check & Connect as an intervention?
How do they exit it?
And how do we progress monitor that student's progress within that intervention?
Now, we're going to move to question five.
Critical features for Check & Connect include the following except A, structured prompts
for what not to do in relevant situations.
B, orientation materials for staff, subs,
volunteers who have students using the intervention.
C, a home-school communication exchange system at least weekly.
D, decision rules for entering, exiting, and progress monitoring.
Okay? The poll is open, pick the correct answer.
Critical features for Check & Connect include the following except,
and I will give you sometime to look at that.
[ Pause ]
[ Inaudible Remark ]
[ Pause ]
[Inaudible Remark] Okay.
All right, you are a good group of students out there.
80 percent of you said A, and A is the correct answer.
We don't want to tell kids what not to do.
We want to tell kids what to do.
Okay, moving along.
[ Pause ]
Okay. Now, you may be wondering, how do I track this?
This is a sample tracking tool that was provided
by the Illinois School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Network.
It allows you to keep track of groups of students so if you look down the left side
of the form, it says interventions and by the--
by each month of the year and then across the top, are your Tier 2 interventions.
So you see Check & Connect which is the first intervention at Tier 2
that you would probably start with-- I'm sorry, Check-In/Check-Out.
Sorry about that.
And then the next, Social/Academic Instructional Groups then we look
at interventions with individual features.
It might be Check & Connect so those are the three we talked about today.
So if you look at that in the month of September for example,
it says number of students participating for Check-In/Check-Out
and number of students responding.
So if you have 100 students participating and if 80 percent
of the students are earning their goal of 80 percent of their points,
then your Check-In/Check-Out system is working.
So, your data for September would look like a hundred students participating, 80,
it could be 90 students responding.
Your Check-In/Check-Out system is working.
The team then only has to look at the 20 percent of kids or the 15 percent of kids
or the 10 percent of kids who aren't responding.
So when your team meets, they're not looking at 100 students participating
in Check-In/Check-Out, they are only looking at those students who aren't responding.
So, if you go to the month of October and now, you have 100 students participating
and only 60 percent of the students are meeting their goal or responding,
then you have a system problem, not a student problem.
So this tool provides you a really quick and efficient way
to review the data from all of your Tier 2 systems.
Remember, as Diane said earlier, Tier 2 systems are about groups of students so you're going
to enter the students participating and the number
of students responding at each level of intervention.
And then your team is only looking at and making adjustments and changes for those students
who are not responding to the intervention.
Okay. Now, here we are back again at the graphic that I used at the beginning of the webinar.
We looked at Check-In/Check-Out, Social/Academic Instructional Groups, Check-In/Check-Out
with individual features, and Check & Connect.
The next slide is a blank copy of this slide.
I'll show that to you right now and go back here for a second.
What I'd like you to do is take a minute or two
and list the interventions you have in placed at Tier 2.
Okay, right here what are your practices?
Where's my cursor?
Here we go, what are your practices that you have in place at Tier 2?
Who is the team that supports Tier 2?
The Tier 2 systems and think about-- talk about, if you're in a group,
write down what are your decision rules for getting a student, for example,
to get from the universal system of support to Check-In and Check-Out?
What is your data rule for getting a student in academics--
Social/Academic Instructional Groups to move from a group to--
into the group or exit out of the group?
What are your decision rules?
How were you collecting data on that?
Take a couple of minutes and jot those things down.
[ Pause ]
Okay. You should have had enough time to list your--
the individuals on your secondary systems support team and some
of the interventions that you have in place.
[ Pause ]
Okay, we've had a couple of questions about Check & Connect that have come in.
One is about the number of students on the case load.
I think that will vary from school district so school district and one district
that has a Check & Connect, they have two to three students per mentor.
I think it also depends on whether mentoring is a full-time job
or whether that's an additional task that someone within the building takes on.
And another variable is the intensity of support that the student needs.
What I would suggest is start small, try with one of two students.
That manual is an excellent resource, it's really a step by step how to.
And in the back of the manual, it has lots of intervention, suggestions,
intervention ideas by engagement subtype.
So, if your unique indicator interventions for tardiness, it list several of them.
If you need interventions for skipping class, it needs a lots-- it list lots of them.
So I would also suggest that you talk with your PAPBS facilitator that's assigned to your school
or your school district and ask for support with Check-In/Check-Out,