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Good afternoon and welcome everybody to the first in our series,
our hot topics in behavior webinar series.
The topic for today is asking "why" a function-based approach
to dealing with problematic behaviors.
I'm Donna LeFevre and I'm a consultant at the PaTTAN Harrisburg office.
And, before we begin our presentation today, I did want to remind everybody
that PaTTAN's mission is to support the efforts initiatives of the Bureau of Special Education,
and to build the capacity of local educational agencies,
to serve children who receive special ed services.
That's the department of education is, their goal is for each child to ensure
that the IEP teams begin with the gen ed setting as the primary placement with use
of supplementary aids and services before considering a more restrictive environment.
So again, as I said earlier, today is the first in our webinar series,
and you can see that there are three more in the series, the dates are there,
the time is always from four to six.
So keep that in mind, going through for future consideration also.
For all of these webinar series, we will be offering Act 48 Psych Continuing Ed credits
and Instructional Clock Hours Verification.
So the way that we handle the verifications
for these continuing ed units is throughout the presentation,
there will be five multiple choice questions that you will need to answer.
Their letters that correspond to the correct answers will be the verification code.
So for the first one, it will be one letter, for the question number two, another letter.
These letters, in order, will make up the verification code.
So you need to pay attention and you need to be writing these letters down.
At the end of the webinar, before Friday, you will need to log on to this website right here,
and put in that verification code.
So there'll be more about that at the end.
There's a time-frame, that tone has to be put in [inaudible].
We did provide you with a form here to use that you can put in your answers in number one,
number two, number three, number four, number five, so that you will have that code
at the end of today's presentation.
Okay, so, to start here, our objectives for the day is that participants will be able
to acquire a systematic process for determining factors
that may be contributing to student misbehavior.
So there's got-- there's a systematic way for assessing this behavior,
there are steps in this function-based behavioral support that are used
to address behavioral concerns in the classroom, and we want to be able to select the strategies
that act to prevent manage custom behaviors, for behavior problems in the classroom.
So, a function-based approach, what is it?
Well, it's a little bit of a different way of thinking about behavior.
It is a systematic process for defining the proper behaviors
and for selecting the interventions that match the function.
And it's a way to deal with behaviors before they become so problematic
that additional supports are needed for student success.
So the difference in thinking about behavior is really, rather than thinking
about what a behavior looks like.
So, rather than thinking about that the property of the behavior,
or whether the child is hitting, whether he's kicking, you know, whether he's yelling out.
We're not going to really-- we're going to-- we need to make note of that, but more importantly,
we're going to pay attention to why the behavior is occurring.
So the systematic process will help us come to that hypothesis,
and decide how to intervene, so that the function is matched.
And, it's always helpful to have this information regardless, whether you're dealing
with severe behaviors or just mild and moderate behaviors.
So basically, a function-based approach has three steps.
The first step is gathering information.
And then you develop a plan.
And then, the last step really is measuring the success of that plan.
So putting in data systems so that you can actually determine whether the changes
that you think are actually creating this-- the changes that you wanted to see in behavior.
So, the first step in dealing with problem behavior is always to define that behavior.
So that's a really important first step.
We need to know what it is, what the problem behavior is before we even begin
to decide how to address the problem.
So the first framework that we're going to look at in identifying behavior is one
that may be familiar to most of you,
and it's one that we often refer to as the ABCs of behavior.
So that's looking at the antecedent, at the behavior itself, and at the consequences.
So the first step we're going to do right now is really kind of look
at the B section of that, so that's the behavior.
So, when you're defining a behavior, the most important thing
in defining behavior is that it needs to be observable.
So, will that behavior be recognized by all who see it?
So we always talk about the average joe test.
You know, if you define a behavior, it should be defined so well that you don't have
to be a behavior specialist, you don't have to be a teacher,
you really should be an average joe of the street come in and say yes,
I agree that that's the same behavior that-- that you are looking for.
In addition to being observable, recognizable, it needs to be measurable.
In other words, can we count it?
And there are many different ways that we can count.
We can count how frequently it happens.
So maybe a behavior happens ten times across the day.
Or, the rate of behavior, maybe it occurs 16 times every hour.
The duration, how long?
It lasts for five minutes, it lasts for ten minutes.
Or the latency of behavior.
So, in other words, how long has the pupil
or that student actually responds and displays the behavior.
So it's the direction of the question that's given.
So it's really important when defining behavior that these two characters
or these two qualities be in place.
So, looking at this list, is this a behavior or is it not a behavior?
Well that's probably identifiable to most everybody.
Screaming is definitely allowed vocalization.
Leaving the classroom, that's observable, you could count that, how long have they gone,
how many times did they leave, or being disruptive.
That doesn't necessary-- now that is really the first behavior that really is not a behavior.
So, thinking about defining a behavior is disruptive,
it really is defining more the impact that have along its listener or the people around it,
rather than on the behavior itself.
So we have many ways of being disruptive, we could be making noises,
we could be tapping our foot, we could be actually poking somebody who is next to us.
So, disruptive is not a descriptive term.
Bangs head on desk is one, hits peers is definitely one, disrespectful.
It's a behavior that is not defined quite observable, 'cause it,
we could be disrespectful in many different fashions.
Hyperactive, what do you think, is that a behavior or not?
For those of you who said no, yeah, that's right.
Hyperactive doesn't really define a behavior.
What would define a behavior is that you frequently move something down out of its seat.
Or, he frequently leaves his desk many times,
or he frequently taps nervously on the table with his pencil.
So, those might be better descriptive terms that hyperactive.
Throwing items, is that a behavior or not?
If you said yes, then yes you're right, it is a behavior.
Curses a teacher, flaps arms, they are all behaviors.
However, off-task and lazy are two examples that are not behaviorally-defined.
So they are not observable because what's lazy, if we'll tell a task
to one person, it may not be to another person.
And then, of course, walking around is definitely a behavior.
So keep in mind of these descriptors, five of them, disruptive, disrespectful, hyperactive,
off-task, and lazy, really don't pass the test of is it observable by all and can you count it.
Okay? So that's your first step.
It's describing the problematic behaviors.
However, describing the problematic behavior is not enough.
We also need to know why the behavior is occurring.
And that's a whole different way of looking at behaviors.
So let's look at some of the functions of behavior.
So basically, research shows that said, we engage in all behaviors for one or two reasons.
To obtain and get something, or to escape or avoid something.
And this is true for not only behaviors that are problematic,
but for behaviors that are not problematic and are more adaptive.
So, in other words, let's look at some of these examples, like, when we talked about obtaining
and getting something, we look at the classic behaviors around getting
or obtaining attention, or social interaction.
So, for instance, if I'm out hiking with a friend, and we've stopped, and we're out hearing
out over a great vista, we were both sitting there, enjoying the moment.
I feel compelled suddenly to say, isn't that beautiful?
And what am I doing now, I'm actually engaging in the behavior of saying isn't that beautiful,
in order to get my companion's attention to what it is I'm paying attention to.
So, so getting, you know, that's an adaptive way of getting behavior.
We might have the [inaudible] baby who's sitting in the high chair,
and he's screaming, she's screaming and yelling.
And then mom just, you know, comes out of the kitchen and walks over
and says, what is it that you want?
Then the baby smiles.
Well, the baby just got your attention, right, that maybe what she wanted,
she was crying which is, you know, can be a problematic behavior,
so that's a baby who don't talk yet.
It's actually an adaptive behavior, but that response in coming in,
giving that infant attention will instantly dry those tears up and create a big smile.
So she'll basically cry in order to get your attention.
This happens in classrooms as well.
We frequently have children who act out, they, you know,
commonly we might call them the class clown, they make some noises.
When these noises occur, it appears you might laugh at them.
So they are actually engaging in this behavior, which to get the peer's attention.
But sometimes they do it to get adult attention too, so the teacher may come over
and restate the goals, encourage the child to, you know,
finish whatever it is that they're doing.
So, that also could be something that's occurring that the child is acting out in order
to get that adult attention as well.
So, that's to get or obtain social attention or social interaction.
Another class of behaviors is to get and obtain materials or activities.
So, this might be the-- the child who, when he's ready for more juice, might reach out and,
you know, go over to hand you his cup.
So, he's basically engaging in that behavior, for handing you a cup,
in order to get more-- more drink.
So, it also-- this also could be at the toddler who falls to the floor, in the grocery store,
and starts screaming and crying because he wants a box of cookies,
because he wants a box of cookies.
Now, mom, then, puts the cookies in-- in the cart, then the toddler's behavior of falling
to the floor is successful in getting the cookies that he wanted.
So that's another inappropriate behavior, and they often do that in the grocery store, right,
just, because they know that mom isn't going to have the tenacity to maybe fight it
out with them and rather than, you know, greatest thing, we'll just give them the cookie.
Another example of engaging of behaviors to get something,
is the student who disrupts the classroom while the teacher is teaching a lesson.
So let's say a teacher is asking multiple questions.
She's asking individual children to answer a question, or not, the answer for every question.
So the teacher then decides that, you know, she's-- she's creating a disturbance,
so she sends her back to the computer, to sit on the computer
and complete an enrichment activity that she have.
So the student is basically yelling at, could possibly be yelling out these answers
to these questions, as a way of getting to the computer
because she notice that's what the teacher will do.
So those are several examples of how we engage in behaviors to get
or obtain materials or activities.
And, the last category in the get and obtain is behaviors
that we engage in to get sensory stimulation.
So this is, once you think of these, are like people who sit and they twirl their hair,
you're engaging that behavior for no other reason other than it just feels good.
Some people shake their feet while in meetings, and they're just doing it because it feels good.
So that's-- that's basically the cause of behaviors.
Now, we look at times that we engaged in behavior to have escape or avoid something.
Where we're engaged at the same set of behaviors many times, or different behaviors,
to get or to escape or avoid attention.
So, some examples of these might be if you're sitting in a classroom,
your professor asks the class, you know, or maybe somebody asks the class
to volunteer to come up into a role play.
Everybody's eyes go down to the table.
Well, we're avoiding eye contact, we're engaging in that behavior,
and hope that we will escape the attention or the social interaction, and also,
at some level the task demand as well, when the group is asked a question.
Another example are the students who might turn away when peers ask them questions.
So, if I'm having difficulty of conversations, or challenging for me,
or perhaps English is not my native language, and when my peers come up to me
and ask me questions or give me directions, I, you know, if I turn my back to them,
it's entirely likely that they will stop coming after me.
So I start turning my back as a way of escaping that attention
that force our social interaction.
Again, we also engage with behaviors to escape or avoid materials or activity.
So, an example of this maybe like when your husband volunteers to clean up the garage
on a Saturday of a charity walk that you've signed him up for.
He's actually volunteering to do in a garage, cleaning as a way of getting out of an activity
that you have already signed him up for.
Another example is in the eleventh grader who maybe is in the nurse's office on Thursdays,
consistently in the afternoon, and here, you might find out that she has a biology lab
that afternoon, and they maybe dissecting animals, and she doesn't want to do that,
so she then goes to the nurse's office as a way of avoiding that activity of dissecting animals.
Another example is the student who may be having a problem in the transition
in the hallway from our class to Math class.
And she might be disruptive, and hitting, and maybe pushing other students getting
out of line, dragging her hands on the wall, but she usually ends
in her getting sent to the office.
So she probably now more-- most likely engages in those behavior,
so it's possible that she engages in those behaviors to avoid something,
and maybe it's Math, you know, so my first question was,
well, what's she getting out at Math?
So maybe there's a problem with Math.
So, the last category, of course, is sensory stimulation.
Probably that you think examples or, you know,
times that we maybe put our hands over our ears to avoid sounds.
If it's bright and sunny, we might shade our eyes as a way of avoiding the bright light.
I know some people who are very sensitive to smells,
so there are certain stores that they will not go into.
So they will stop in front of the store, they will come in, and then turn on and go out.
And they do that as a way of escaping some of the sound-- smells in there.
So why is this important to know?
Well, if you've got a kid who maybe is engaging in the same behavior,
let's say they're clearing their desks of all the materials that you have on them.
And if they do it at a time when you're asking them to complete the task,
the clearing could potentially be a result of that-- that demand.
So they're doing it to escape or avoid something.
So if you decide that a time-out is appropriate at that time, in many ways,
then you've just reinforced that behavior because they cleared the desk,
and then they got away from the activity.
So, it's really important to know the why's, whether they're getting--
they're doing it to get attention, or whether doing it to escape or avoid something,
because your responses are going to different place upon what the function
of that behavior is.
Any challenging behavior that persists overtime is actually working for that individual.
So when you see a behavior for two or three times, that's,
you know, it may only not be a pattern.
When you really need to step into function-based thinking, is when you noticed
that something is happening on a consistent and persistent basis,
we know that if you could capture something earlier rather than later,
you may have less of a problem to deal with.
So looking for those consistencies, so well, geez.
I've done that with Billy for three times already this week.
There must be something going on, kind of should kick you into this idea,
what's the function of that behavior?
Asking why a behavior is occurring takes the problem away, takes it away from the students.
So now, if we know why, the problem may not be with the students.
And it should lead you to examine the context in which the behavior is occurring.
So part of doing function-based thinking is really thinking
about the context in which behaviors occur.
So, if we go back to our ABC, when we talk about context, we're really looking at the A
and the C. We know what the behavior is, whether it's a problematic behavior
or a behavior that we want to increase.
But, whatever that behavior is, we need to look at the conditions under which it occurs
and what happens then after that behavior.
So we look at the antecedents.
The antecedents are basically anything that occurs or is present before a behavior.
So, it could be any activity.
You might notice that every time a kid has to sit at the table and work
on something himself, this is when the problems occur.
Or you might notice that it occurs more frequently in large group settings.
Or it occurs on just certain academic, academic topics.
So, it's really important to look for those patterns.
You also want to look where others are involved.
Our peers, are they typical or typically, are there consistent peers that are around?
Are there adults?
We both know that our behaviors are changed by the presence of some of the principal
or our supervisors standing in our classroom door.
That can instantly change our behaviors.
So, the presence of others can affect how we interact and how we behave.
We also want to look at the location or the environment.
Are certain environments more problematic than others?
Playgrounds, cafeterias, related services.
Whatever it is, looking at the antecedents,
what types of materials are you giving kids to work on.
What are the expectations or how they complete them?
So these are all the antecedents that you want to consider when taking
about the context of the behavior.
Consequences are anything that occurs after a behavior.
So, when we think about consequences, we really think of two categories.
We have reinforcement which is a consequence
that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur.
So, if I buy a lottery ticket tomorrow, and I scratch off all
of the little scratch off sections and I win 25 dollars,
that indefinitely increases the likelihood that I will purchase another lottery ticket tomorrow.
So, that is a reinforcer for my behavior of purchasing a lottery ticket.
Now, when we look at punishment, punishment is a consequence
that decreases the likelihood that the behavior will occur.
So, in other words, if I'm speeding down the road, and I get stopped by a cop or a policeman,
and he gives me a ticket, the hope is that that ticket acts as a consequence
that decreases the likelihood that I will continue speeding.
What's really, really important when you think about consequences
and whether something is reinforcing or punishment or punishing,
you can't think about what it is.
You think it's reinforcing or punishment, it really is kind of beyond the effect
of the individual student, or the individual period.
And many times when I'm working with staff out in the field,
we'll do these little reinforcer surveys and I always find it interesting
that you can be talking to two different people and one of them can mark
as something reinforcing at smoking.
You know, and having a place for them to smoke is very reinforcing yet the person sitting next
to them, having somebody smoking nearby is very punishing.
So, somebody might go to an area, the classroom or out of the school
because they know that's where smoking occurs.
Whereas, other people might avoid it because they weren't smoking at first.
So it's really important, personally myself, I love, you know, I love watching food shows.
To me, that's my favorite-- one of my favorite activities is watching all the cooking shows
on the food network.
I know for years, I have many friends who go sit all day and watch golf.
I never really understood that.
That is just so boring, it almost--
could be punishing for me to sit in front of the TV and watch ball.
But, you know, for those people who live through the golf shows, there's a chance that sitting
and watching the food network all day would be very punishing for them.
So again, I like to-- I don't like chocolates.
So when people go and pull out chocolate as a reward at a training I often think
that they didn't really consider what the effect of chocolate would have on them.
So again, there's a very individual as--
whether something that's reinforcing a punishing-- punishment.
Okay, so let's look at change of behavior requires consideration of antecedents
and consequences, to help determine the function of the behavior.
So when identifying antecedents and consequences, nothing is not an option.
So, it is really behavior, never just screams out of the blue.
Now, we often may not pay attention to what the antecedents are
because many times we don't pay attention to the behavior until it occurs
so we have missed the antecedents.
So that's where you have to become a little detective
when you start to see persisting problems.
If we begin to ask some important questions about what's in place when the behavior occurs.
Now the consequences we should know and you know, the consequences like that we choose
to ignore and we see that behaviors are increasing,
then ignoring may not be the most appropriate response.
So, nothing is never an option.
You're always going to have to do something and behaviors do not come out of the blue.
So when you're trying to like determine what function is, I always think it's most helpful
to think about, when does this behavior most likely occur.
So, many times the people are puzzled about things, I'll say,
can you make that behavior happen?
Well, yeah, if you can, then there are some predictability to the behavior,
and most typically, somebody who can make behavior happen can either identify a certain
person, a certain time, a certain place, the specific activity
which will elicit that inappropriate behavior.
Now additionally to asking those who, what, when, where questions than trying
to determine why, the other thing to really think about is when does
that behavior leads likely to occur?
'Cause that might give you some information, and definitely will give you some information
on what is in place when that student or that individual is successful and does not engage
in those inappropriate behaviors.
This is really important information to know because we might
like to recreate these more successful opportunities that we discussed, okay,
as part of our intervention patterns.
So, other things to consider when looking at trying to identify the function of behaviors,
we need to think about setting events.
And these are the things that are really at a lower control
like things they consider, things like medications.
If a child is just placed on new medications or medications have been changed,
you might see some different patterns of behaviors.
If there are any medical or physical problems that fluctuate, kids who don't sleep well,
kids who aren't getting good nutrition, there are lots of things
that can create an environment for more inappropriate behaviors.
You and I both know this.
You know, you have one or two sleepless nights, you're coming down with a cold.
And thought, could we announce it?
We oftentimes, if we'll come in late to a meeting, which is inappropriate work behavior,
we might rush in and say oh I'm sorry, you know, I'm coming down with a cold,
I'll just go and get my self going today.
So, it kind of announces to the room that I've got certain setting events going on here
that might mean that I'm not at full throttle for the day.
So we need to consider these events for kids at 12.
So here is our systematic framework for thinking about developing a hypothesis
of what the function is, of the behavior is.
It's really important that no matter how mild or how severe the behavior,
determining that function is a best guess.
So we're just taking a guess.
It's our best guess for right now, but it's employing to determine a hypothesis,
to develop an intervention program, and then through the use of data,
we'll know whether our guess is appropriate or not, or accurate or not.
If it's not accurate, that behaviors don't get better,
behaviors get better then it was most likely accurate.
So when determining function, the first thing we do is look at setting events
and again these are the infrequent events that affect value and maintaining consequence.
So these are the things that would come to the table.
Then we look at the triggering antecedents.
So, preceding that inappropriate behavior,
what happened that might have triggered that inappropriate behavior?
The problem of behavior is an observable and measurable description of the behavior
of concern and then the maintaining consequences again are those following events
that maintain behaviors of concern.
So let's look at a couple of examples of these.
Here we have Tom who frequently makes inappropriate sounds during times
when he should be finishing an independent task.
As a result of these sounds, his peers typically will laugh
or the teacher will restate the classroom rules and encourage him to work harder.
This occurs more frequently at the beginning of the week.
So let's see.
Let's go to our hypothesis and let's say the setting events.
Well, one of the possibility is we can break some school.
Maybe the time away from the structure in school and getting back
into the routine a school might be a little challenging for Tom.
But the triggering antecedent is the independent work.
He seems to have the most problem when he's sitting at the table trying, in his desk,
trying to complete an independent task.
The problem of behavior are the inappropriate sounds and the maintaining consequence
up here is laugh and her teacher restates the expectation.
So what's the function on this behavior?
Well, my hypothesis would be that it's to obtain peer and adult attention.
Though, it could just slightly be an escape from doing the independent task.
So, you know, career observations, you would decide on one or the other or you may decide
on both and come up with different reactions in different responses.
But again, this has always been true with teaming process.
Here's another example.
During group lessons, when the teacher asked individual questions,
Ashley will frequently call out the answers before her peers are able to respond.
After a few times, the teacher sends her to a classroom computer
to work on an enrichment activity.
So, what's the setting in that?
Well, we have an unfinished enrichment activity that might actually be fun for Ashley.
So maybe that in the back of her head,
that's something that she will rather be doing than doing a group lesson.
Triggering antecedents, the group activities with multiple individual questions,
so having a group activity where there's a lot
of wait time while individual kids are responding to questions,
may be a little challenging for Ashley.
Problem behavior where she called out the answers to questions that are not addressed
to her and I'm assuming that she's accurate most of the time
because the maintaining consequences, the teacher removes her from the group
to go finish her project on the computer.
So again, Ashley could be engaging in these calling out behaviors as a way
of escaping the group lesson at hand.
Ben is another example, third example.
Ben is the student who has difficulty
with social conversations especially when he is tired or sick.
He will frequently turn away from the peer when they attempt
to ask him a question or get him a direction.
As a result, they will often walk away from him.
His peers are approaching him less and less.
The setting event, well, lack of sleep or an illness will make it worse.
But he does have some difficulty with social conversations as well.
The triggering antecedents, what's, when peers are approaching with a question or a direction,
his response is to turn away and then the maintaining consequence is the peers basically
leave him alone.
So, he may be engaging in these turning around behaviors
to escape the attention from the peers.
It could be good?
Yes. I guess here's a question here.
Could the group-- a couple.
Could the group, could the setting event be the group activity?
So I'm assuming we're talking about this.
Yes, most definitely.
It could be that group activity.
It could be that she doesn't like group activities
or she's escaping the group activities.
The setting event, I don't know that the setting event will be the group activity.
No, the setting-- no, the group activity would really be the triggering antecedent rather
than the setting event.
The setting event would be something external that happens much earlier
or just an internal state that might make it difficult
for the job to be engaged appropriately.
The last example, Jill frequently acts out walking--
when walking in the hallway from art to the classroom from math class.
She's often sent to the principal's office as a result of these disruptions.
So the setting event, well, I'd ask if there's problem with that.
That could be the setting event [inaudible].
What? And the skill deficit.
That's exactly right.
So that what the question, it could be the skill deficit, yeah.
There could be a problem with that.
Now, I don't know that, we don't know that and you may not you know,
you may not know that right away but that would be something that I would probably look into.
The triggering event, right in the scene would be the hallway transition from art to math.
The problem is pushing peers, trailing with the wall with her hands, jumping out the line
and then obtaining consequences that she often goes
to the principal's office as she gets out on that class.
So I would say that she may be engaging in using appropriate behaviors in the hallways as a way
of getting-- escaping a task he couldn't handle or escaping that definitely.
So, again, we need to determine these functions because that--
these, knowing these functions whether it's to gather, obtain or to escape, or avoid,
will help us determine our solutions.
They will help us to know either how to modify or eliminate the antecedents in behavior,
so we may modify work, we may modify groups, we may eliminate certain demands.
And also, to eliminate or minimize the consequences so we may choose to respond
to the behavior in a different manner.
And also to remediate the skill deficits
so that the problem behavior is less effective and less efficient.
So this is where we really want to be a little more proactive
in helping develop some more appropriate and adaptive ways for kids
to get what it is they want whether it's peer attention, adult attention, whether it's access
to appropriate or to highly-preferred activities and materials, whatever it is,
but their function is very important to them.
So, we are here now at our first Act 48 Psych CE
and instructional clock hours verification question.
So the question is, what are the primary reasons individuals display problematic behaviors?
A, lack of parental follow-through, B, skill deficits and poor instruction, C,
to get and to escape, D, to irritate and to avoid.
So go ahead and text in your response to this question.
[ Silence ]
Okay, well ninety three percent of you actually indicated that, good response is to get
and to escape and you are correct.
So please write down that the answer to number one is C, that's the first letter
in your five-letter verification code.
So, and I'm not going to repeat this again so please be mindful and write down these letters,
we always get a couple of calls about this at the end and we can't give them
to you at the end of the training.
You have to write, write them down as you go through, copy that.
So this is not the time to get up and go to the bathroom.
Sorry, so, also, a lot of you are e-mailing in questions regarding specific situations
in your classrooms or what specific kids that you are, are working with right now.
Please be mindful that this is a two-hour webinar so we're not going to be able
to address all of your specific questions.
What I'm hoping is that at the end of these two hours, you will have a framework for beginning
to think about these functions and how you're going to response
if you e-mail your space malfunction [inaudible].
On your own, but as you continue to need, if you continue to need help that is a time
when you can't contact your local intermediate, you know, they can be a person.
Okay, we've had this question, can't, can't the setting, that you guys with the environment, no,
the environment is most likely the triggering more with these.
It really wouldn't be the setting event, you think of setting events
as being cumulative things that occur away from the actual problematic behavior.
So the fact that, I'm brewing a cold, or in the fact that I didn't get enough sleep last night
or the fact that I lost my keys, it took me twenty minutes to get out the house
and then I had a flat tire before I got to school.
So by the time I get to school, I'm in at state and I'm more likely to respond inappropriately.
So it's more than it was background things that we really have little to know control of them.
Okay, I have another question here.
What the timeframe to, what's the timeframe to do this evaluation?
That's going to depend upon how frequent the behavior happens.
Again, you, this evaluation can be an ongoing way that you just think,
well that's the third time I had spoken to him today, what's going on
or maybe it's the fifth day and in the last two weeks
that you've had to speak to a certain thought.
So you know, you know what the timeframe that's to begin looking at this, you know,
if you start to think, what's going on with that kid, then you start,
then this is when you start asking those questions.
What has to be and are most likely to happen, with who, where, when, what kinds of things
or in a place in the environment, what kinds of demands are in place?
What happens afterwards, you know, am I paying attention to him, why not paying attention?
So, how long this evaluation takes depends on how frequently the behavior occurs.
And then also, it will take as long as it needs to take until you start to see some consistency.
So that you can develop a hypothesis.
Okay, let's go on again, this is, remember,
write down your answers, the question one was C, okay.
Okay, the second step in dealing with problematic behavior is to develop a plan
for change, this is really, really so important.
One of the basic premises that we know is that, if you take something away, you create a vacuum.
So you want to make sure that you put something into that vacuum that is going
to be a little more helpful than what the child is already doing.
So if you had a kid who is engaging in inappropriate behaviors,
he is not going to just stop doing it, you might get him to stop poking other kids
but he might start doing something else unless you decide what it is you would rather
Now, first you need to know why he is doing it before you can decide
that you do.
for that, what you want to teach instead.
But it really is taking a more of an instruction approach to dealing with behaviors.
So rather than this idea of punishing behaviors or consequating behaviors with punishment
and the hopes that they decrease.
It really is the idea that we now have a teaching opportunity for these kids.
Teachers, all teachers regardless of, who you're teaching and where you teach,
all teachers are responsible for teaching kids appropriate behaviors.
I've been in many, many [inaudible] classrooms and third grade teachers spend a lot
of time talking about how we interact with our peers
on the playground, how we walk in the halls.
So, you know, it, it's just the idea that rather than consequating,
let's start teaching what those behaviors are and getting the correct responses
so that we can reinforce those and straighten those correct responses.
So, explicitly, teaching expected desired behaviors rather than assuming.
So we're making as a lot of assumptions that the kids just know
like that they'll be able to figure it out on their own.
And you know what, most of our kids do seem to just know and they will figure it out,
they know some of the kids that don't have persistent problems.
Those kids with persisting problems, they may not truly understand either what are these
that they should be doing right or they may have stronger pulls on them to not engage
in those behaviors that might necessitate new change in your setting little bit.
So this idea of explicit instruction is very, very important,
it's really important cause it's really the only thing we can do, and it's the best thing
that we do, we're teachers, that's what we do, we teach,
we teach behaviors whether it's reading or whether it's learning how to walk
down the hall in a orderly manner.
It is what we, we focus on what we can change in that teaching.
We cannot prescribe medication.
We can't say it's a wrong one or it's a right one or this kid needs either that needs it.
We cannot change students, pretty in these experiences, then we cannot,
we can have very little effect on many of the parenting practices in the home.
And these are, these are of issues in particular that I think is dealing
with the behavior that becomes persistent.
It's very-- I mean it's a trap, excuse me to get into thinking
about means and causes for the behavior.
And it's okay to do some venting, but if we do too much, we end up really more
or less admiring the problem rather than coming up with solutions.
So we can focus on changes, then we can focus on what we can do which is, you know,
we can change student behavior and that starts the student learning.
So the fundamental rule is that you should not propose to reduce a problem behavior.
We've got to identify an alternative behavior.
That's really important, so it's really difficult to begin to reduce
that unless you have another option for the kid to do.
Desired behaviors, person, desired behaviors,
a person should perform instead of problem behavior.
So you really want the desired behaviors and not the problem behaviors.
How do we choose appropriate behaviors?
Well, we want to focus only on one or more related parts
of behaviors, we can't exchange everything.
So if you've got a kid who has a lot of a wide variety of behavior problems,
you might just pick them from one that's the most prevalent rank down, just deal with how
and let them worry about the others.
So just focusing on, on selected behaviors, make sure that you select behavior that's
from the same function as behavior.
So if I'm engaging in behavior to get attention
and then you give me another behavior that's actually going to get me access to, you know,
some kind of a token system, that may not work unless
that token system results in the getting more attention.
So you want to be careful about behaviors that you select and then make sure
that the behaviors have, are more that are easily used in multiple situations, okay.
So this is kind of how we think about, is this idea of competing half ways.
And I'm going to, when you, when you talk about, when you talk at a setting event,
which we've talked about and those are the things that could affect behaviors that occurred
in the past or they're the ground work behaviors that's triggering kind of things or what happens
for every poor behavior, problem behavior, it's the behavior concern
and the maintaining consequence of what happens out there.
Now what we want to do is we want to decide what the desired alternative is,
so what do we really want to see, that are learners engaging in
and what are the typical consequences.
Now sometimes, we can't get here right away.
So we may have to determine what the acceptable alternatives are.
So here's a couple examples of using this type of the worksheet and figuring
out how you're going to deal with these behaviors.
In here, we have Tom, remember Tom, he was the one that after weekend breaks,
independent tasks became more challenging for him, he would often engage in appropriate sounds
and he's a lot-- [inaudible] all attention.
So what is the desired alternative for this behavior?
Well we want them to complete that task right, and so typically in most classrooms,
when you complete a task, a typical consequence would be free time with your peers,
well that seems like a good match, right?
Free time with peers, that's peer attention, you're looking for peer attention here.
Now, what's the likelihood that you're going to jump, not doing a task independently
to avoid right, to completing an independent task, probably not likely,
so we need to think of acceptable alternatives.
So depending upon your analysis on why Tom engages in that behavior,
are some acceptable alternatives, could be reducing the amount of intended work
and then gradually building it up overtime, it might be having him work with peer buddies
so that you can hear the peer attention of completing the ask
and then decreasing that overtime.
So there is-- these are two of the many possible solutions to dealing with Tom's problem.
Another example that we talked about earlier is Jill.
Remember Jill is the one that was having problems walking
down the hall between art and math class.
So she was, you know, we do question, is she having problems with math,
that review question I would, I would ask before coming up with any other solution.
Well, we know what the, we know what--
and I'm seeing this, we know what the problem behavior is and we know
that the maintaining consequence, is that she was sent to the office.
So let's see what's the alternative behavior, the desired alternative, it's,
we want her to walk in the hallway and typically,
at that phase might be, you know, not to sustain that.
And then so what are some acceptable alternatives?
Well, we couldn't make her write liturgy, she could have some sort of chore
or maybe she's carrying something so that we have competing behaviors,
some holding arm to something so therefore pushing and hands on walls,
just kind of feel a little more talented.
So there are any number solutions, but we may not expect her just to walk
in the hall just like every other kid right away.
Because that's a pretty big lead.
Now, we might be able to do that but you may not as well cause probably Jill,
how fast the problem is occurring.
So, thinking about we place the behavior checklist,
when you've identified replacement behaviors, you really want to ask these questions
or to get them what they used to get with the old and appropriate behavior.
Just to get the amount of things, does it get them the access.
Does it work as quickly as the old behaviors?
So if the screaming or the other self gets more quickly then asking
in a nice way is probably not going to be a good replacement.
What is the old behavior used to get the amount of doing school work,
then how do I let the amount of that.
So that, those are questions that you need to ask, you know, so those are times
that you may need to put in additional consequence thought
or maybe just alter what the school work gives.
But again, you're going to have to look at each individual fit in, we'll get the why's
and what the contributing factors are.
And then do others do induce the same behavior in the same way.
So, if you've felt that replacement behavior that other students use are the same way,
that's probably a gold one and you want to, you want to go with that okay.
So, here is question number two.
So get ready, we're going to take another poll, what is an important part
of any plan to reduce problem behaviors?
A, identify a single consequence to the problem behavior, B, develop a token system, C,
identify an alternative, desired behavior, or D, give them warnings
when the problem behavior occurs, so we will start the poll, yeah?
[ Silence ]
Okay, the poll came in, ninety four percent of you got the right answer,
and the correct answer is, C, identifying alternatives desired behavior
so please write C down, many of you are calling in and asking what these answers are
and I cannot repeat the answers once we pass these questions twice so please stay attentive
to what I'm talking about in here and write it down.
For the purpose of your code, the second letter in your verification code is going to be C okay?
And again, you could write that down on that little piece
of paper that you just saw apart that by.
Okay, teachers spend a lot of time trying to extinguish,
or reduce their students' challenging behaviors
but don't often acknowledge the behavior vacuum that they are creating.
So, you need to really come up, identify those replacement behaviors
and the single most effective response when you see a kid engaging in those of behaviors,
is what we call contingent-specific praise.
This should be everybody's front-line strategy for developing appropriate behaviors.
What is contingent-specific praise?
Well, it's a positive statement that's typically provided
by the teacher when a desired behavior occurs.
So what you're going to do basically is tell the kid, catch the kid being good, right.
So what does this research tell us about praise, what this tells us,
that delivering contingent praise
for appropriate behaviors increases the following behaviors, on-task behaviors,
student attention, compliance, positive self-referent statements and cooperative play.
Specific praise provides your students with feedback on what it is that they're doing well.
We spend a lot of time telling kids you need to raise your hand,
you didn't raise your hand, you're calling out.
You know, rather than catching them up, good, I see that your hand is raised,
can you please answer that question?
So we really need to be very, very mindful of catching those behaviors that we want to see
and praising those is one of the hardest things that they do.
That that we do, when we use contingent-specific praise for our students,
then they begin to learn to evaluate their own behavior, not just in this behavior
or the behaviors that are undesired in that setting, but they begin to really think
about what is it the behaviors that are appropriate to this setting.
And they begin to then be more independent in evaluating that and then as well
as identifying appropriate behaviors and then making the decisions,
want to engage in those appropriate behaviors.
Now look, I have a question here, which she says fantastic way to split work or the score.
Oh, if the task avoided is school work, then you need to think about what
that school work is going to look like 'cause maybe they're avoiding the task
because the school work is something that they are having a hard time with.
It may be challenging for them and they are not good at requesting help
or it's difficult to request top.
The other thing to think about, if they are avoiding the task of school work,
is that you may need to have an extra layer of contingency, so for a while,
that kid might need some kind of a reward system when his tasks are completed.
Now again, which of these solutions that you'll choose is really dependent--
is really dependent upon your child and the best thing to keep in mind is
that whatever you decide to put in place, if the behaviors are not getting better,
then you need to find something else to do.
If you tried every answer you know, then that's when you really ask for help and that's
when you call on the behavior specialist or somebody else to help you call
like a school guidance counselor, a school psychologist, you know, there's any number
of people who could come in and help you probably solve these behaviors.
Another question, what about intrinsic behaviors
that impact past performance, but we can't see it.
Well, intrinsic behavior is that how it affect past performance by--
I'm assuming you're talking about the motivation to actually participate in the activity.
So that might be part of what you need to think
about is how can I make this more motivating for my student?
He may not be motivated to participate so therefore, maybe to lessen--
I will get better participation across all of my students
if I structure this lesson in a different [inaudible].
So, and then questions of-- you're asking questions about behavior plans,
this part of the intrinsic what you might do first child
if you make some assumptions are exhibiting some intrinsic--
[inaudible], might be used in either [inaudible].
So the question is that if you have a kid with intrinsic behavior issues,
when you ask for a behavior plan of counseling, I would suggest to you that any time
that you have a kid who has persistent inappropriate behaviors,
that you begin by hypothesizing what you think the function is, come up with some solutions,
and if you tried a couple of different things, then it's not getting better,
the behavior is getting worst, or if behavior gets worst very rapidly,
then that's when you seek help and that's
when you begin the process of developing a behavior plan.
Now counseling maybe something that the behavior plan team decides, is a treatment
or an intervention that support and it may not.
Again, that's going to be individual from student to student
from behavior, you know, behavior to behavior.
So again, this-- what I'm trying to do here for you today is
to give you a framework to be thinking on your own.
You know if you're in the middle of dealing with the behavior and you're starting
to know it's a problem, you can go through the same process.
The process I'm describing for you is almost identical to the process that you would go
through if you were developing a behavior plan.
So understanding this framework will help you not only with your low-grade behaviors
or the behaviors that are just in the beginning of becoming problematic,
but it should also help you individually become a better member of a behavior team.
So we have gone to-- we have gathered together for the purposes
of doing an FBA, developing a behavior plan.
Okay. Here's another question, who creates behavior support plans?
That varies from system to system.
I would suggest to you that as a classroom teacher,
you should always be at least a member of that team.
And who is on that team would vary depending upon how your school sets up those supports
as well as it may even depend upon how severe the behavior is,
or if a student has an IEP then you will pull the team together.
The next question, can a teacher do or doesn't have to be a school psychologist?
Again, it varies from system to system who does a formal FBA.
What we're suggesting to you is that you can have this functional-based approach even before
you rise to the level of having to do an FBA.
And you could potentially remediate that problem so you don't have to do an FBA.
If you will have an understanding on how you can manipulate some of the emphasis and some
of the consequences, based upon on your hypothesis
for the-- for why the behaviors occur.
Okay, so we're going to go back to talking about praise.
That we know that praise is one of our most-- is our single most powerful tool as a teacher.
So in order for the praise to be effective, we need to be engaged
in active supervisions, so what does that mean?
That means that basically teaching as an aerobic activity.
So if you're not moving around the classroom,
it's likely that you might be missing opportunities that kids are engaging
in the behaviors that you want them to engage in.
And so therefore, you might miss the opportunities to praise and
or reinforce the behaviors that you want to see more of.
As well as speaking about when we're interacting.
You know, many times, you know, we really want to strive for a four to one ratio
of praise versus corrective feedback.
So for every time we correct the behavior, the hope is that we can find
at least four opportunities to praise a behavior that we would rather see
than the behavior than we were correcting.
So, for example the hand raising and calling out, you know,
we're constantly correcting calling out but we're never praising hand-raising.
It's very unlikely that we're going to get hand-raising.
And then of course, scanning the environment.
So you really-- this really needs to occur, you know,
you really need to give the praise soon after behavior occurs.
If you're not scanning, if you're not moving and if you're not thinking about that ratio of four
to one praise to correct this, then, it's going to be challenging
to get those more adaptive behaviors in place.
So the steps for giving praise, first state the student's name, Johnny.
Give a praise statement.
I see that you're raising a hand-- you know, you're raising a hand to--
you know, that was nice raising your hand.
Can you answer that question?
So Johnny, that was nice raising your hand.
Can you answer that question?
So this basically show you can use as a-- if they walk through, knowing what you need to say
to praise that "Good job" is not going to do it.
You really need to have Johnny specifically what the behavior that you're seeing
that you want them to do more of.
So again, catch them being good really, really focus on positive and not negative behavior
and provide positive and not negative attention.
This is your strongest tool and it's the easiest tool that we have available for us.
So finally, generally desired academic and social behavior can be increased
by providing contingent-specific praise and the effects of praise maybe bolstered,
but the praise is specific in using construction in conjunction with other strategies
so you're going to have students where this isn't going to work this isn't going
to be enough, it should work, but it really should work
with the 80 to 90 percent of your students.
But for those other kids, it might, praise might be the most effective when it's used
in conjunction with individuals and your group acknowledgment systems.
So things like group contingencies and token systems, reward systems might be important
for some students in addition to the specific praise, okay?
So here is our third question for our CEUs so everybody get ready.
We're taking a poll.
Get ready to write down what the third letter is.
The question is what is a powerful tool in developing socially-appropriate behaviors?
A ,contingent-specific praise, B, token economies,
C providing one-on-one assistance, and D, social stories.
So please respond to the poll.
[ Pause ]
Okay 98 percent of you got A right.
So as you're writing down your code, know that number three is A.
So we have a couple of questions.
Somebody asked what the fundamental rule was, so I'm going to read it one more time.
You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior
without also identifying alternative desired behaviors.
Persons should be-- that the person should perform instead of the problem behavior.
So, what was the other question [inaudible]?
Okay. So that was it, that's it for the questions.
Okay. Behavioral principles, so underlying all teaching and learning situations,
we need to think about these three-- these three specific behavioral principles, shaping,
reinforcement, and stimulus control.
So we're looking at shaping.
Shaping is a graduated sequence of subtle changes towards the final behavior,
starting with the closest response the student already does, okay?
So that's the idea of approximations.
You know, I may not be able to-- I may not be successful
when independently completing a worksheet with 20 questions on it but if I went
down to five, maybe I'd be successful.
So then after I can do that, several days in a row,
then all of a sudden my worksheets might have seven answers on them.
So I'm gradually shaping.
It's a sequence of subtle changes.
We're shaping a lot even when we're teaching reading when we think about a lot
of our curriculum actually defines the shape.
And so first we want some simple relationships than we want initial sounds,
we want an ending sounds, medial sounds, we wanted to sequence the sounds.
But if we have kids who need a little bit of extra, we may embed--
we may shape that behavior by manipulating the [inaudible] so that to the behavior.
So, if we may do clapping with each, you know, for each sound,
we do a clap as well as saying it.
We may sing the song.
And then we gradually decrease those kinds of talks.
So that's really what's shaping is about and we could do the same for behaviors.
So how shaping works?
Well we first, who has the first approximation every time it is awkward
until it's performed without hesitation.
So we look for those low level behaviors and we give them praise for every one of those.
Now, as that becomes the way the kid responds, then we're going to reinforce-- we're going to--
we'll send that reinforcement out.
So we may not say that was great raising your hand every time he does it.
We may just do it every third or fourth time.
And then, you know, finally until that behavior gets closer and closer, we let it continue
to reinforce more and more closer approximations.
So it's just something to keep in mind.
I think the most important thing to think about with shaping is
when you've got a kid who's starting to really become persistent,
a persistent behavior problem, it really might be unfair
to expect it just to go away overnight.
You know, it might be that well, he doesn't raise his hands like, you know,
and wait but if he raises his hand and maybe makes a sound like "Oh, oh,
oh I'd like reinforcement, at least the hand is up.
He's not quiet yet but I might-- once your hand is
up consistently then I might stop saying good you raised your hand and look for the times
when he's quiet and then reinforce those 'cause that's a closer approximation
to our [inaudible], okay?
So shaping is really important to think about and we can't expect for behavior just
like we can't expect waiting that to happen overnight.
We can't expect for some kids to change their behaviors automatically either.
Reinforcement, what is reinforcement?
Well it's a consequence delivered to a student following a behavior
that will increase the occurrence of the behavior in the future.
So we talked a little bit about reinforcement versus punishment,
but I think the important thing that I wanted to discuss with reinforcement right now is
that there are rules of reinforcement.
We know that for a reinforcement to be effective, we need to do it immediately.
So we can at the end of the day say, "I saw you raise your hand two times today" for a kid
who is only raising it two times out of 20 times they'd be quoted the raising up.
And he's not getting immediate enough feedback and that frequency means,
there's something new if he never raises his hand.
We really need to be on top of reinforcement now when it occurs.
And also keep in mind the only way to determine that something serves
as a reinforcer is to see the effective behavior.
So for some kids a "Good job" isn't going to do it.
And a good job should do it.
It should be for raising your hand, oh I like the way you raised your hand and you are-- you--
I think it's okay to use the rewards when you-- when you include that praise.
So, some strategies used to give more attention to the behavior.
You want the kid to use, tell him what you wanted to do instead
of what you don't want him to do.
Reinforce whenever the kids are doing it.
And, you know, rewards-- if you're giving rewards and tokens
and other times it's also important to be specific in your praise.
They should know why they got it.
Determining reinforcers, again, I'm not going to--
we're running short on time so I won't spend too much.
But really, you've got to figure out what does the kid like?
What's in it for him?
What kinds of things does he do when he's on his own?
And for some kids, you could just ask them, you know, that works as well.
So it's important to know especially if you're using token systems
and the kids are cashing in their tokens.
If they're cashing in for things that they can get anyways without the tokens or for things
that they don't care about, then those tokens are not going to be meaningful for them either.
Stimulus control, what is it?
Well it's the idea that there are certain things in the environment that control our behavior.
I hear a phone ring, I go to look for it and I pick it up.
So that ringing of the phone is a stimulus in the environment
that controls my behavior of picking up the phone.
So that's important to know because there are times that we can maybe change our environment
so that for some kids, that stimulus that might promote anxiety can be removed or it can be--
replace it with this something else.
So it's really important to think about what stimuli and what the environment is.
So determining stimulus control is really and establishing it is used--
it's done through the use of reinforcement and through the use of shaping.
So some things to keep in mind, try not to make the question-- here's a follow through one.
It's like that, you know, the mother who yells in at the kid and he's in front of the TV
and says "turn off the TV, dinner is ready.
I'm not going to tell you one more time.
Turn it off."
Well we know that kid knows that she's going to hear at least four more times.
So, if you as a mother want your kid to turn off the TV,
wait until you can actually tell a follow up.
So don't make a request that you're not prepared to follow through on.
Don't fly off the handle out of poor response because they're not going to create a situation
where the kid then it becomes a foul play and, you know,
you become stimulus then for being trauma scene.
And don't nag, scold, coerce or threaten, you know,
you always think of yourself as the gentle giant.
And, you know, it's just the way that things have to be and you could
at the [inaudible] need be, but nagging does nothing but just say "I'm going to tell you over
and over again before you really have to do it."
Function-based strategy, so here are some strategies to think
about for teaching appropriate behaviors.
So we have two sets, antecedent strategies which set the stage
for the appropriate behaviors and consequence strategies.
In other words, they plan respond to this behavior.
So, strategy is for kids who are a displaying escape and avoidance behaviors.
First thing you might want to do is determine if the behavior is a result of either a task
that the kid is unfamiliar with or your student is unfamiliar
with either the process or the content.
Academic deficits, maybe it's just too much.
I always think about the idea of going into the kitchen
after thanksgiving dinner like where do you start?
You know, there's just so much there and I think some of our kids get overwhelmed
and sometimes the amount of organization that they have to do
in order to get started at looking.
Perhaps the material isn't engaging for the student,
so you may need to repeat your materials for that particular student,
or perhaps there's a social skill deficit
that needs some more long-term and proactive interventions.
So what do you do?
Well, you can look at curricular modifications or adaptations.
Lots of times, you might use verbal or nonverbal reminders with the students, that idea of,
you know, if you're having problems, you know, maybe there's a secret signal between the two
of you that they could ask for help without acting out in order to get it.
Lots of times, using the Premack and [inaudible] law, you know, when you get this homework done,
then you can sit down with your peers and play this game.
So using a "if then" sort of format.
Providing choices, it's really important.
A lot of kids who escape things that, you know, will, may then or may actually respond
to problem, you know, to choices.
So number 21 is set to deal with the work, what kind of, you know,
do you want to do this worksheet or that worksheet?
You have to do one of them but you can do either of them.
Now, the secret to providing choices is that you're in control of those choices.
You can't think of the sound choices, you know, you're going to control those choices
but for kids who engage in a lot of escape behaviors the choices maybe a powerful way
of getting them to do the work in the end.
And then you can gradually shape how, on what content they'll do the work.
Build in breaks, you know, permit escape for a specific amount of time.
You and I do that and if we're at the meeting where it's a stressful meeting we can go
to the bathroom for five minutes, you know, it's a way of kind of escaping.
So building those breaks, in are those opportunities.
For some kids, you might have to--
have a behavioral contract when you talk explicitly beforehand about what some
of the options are and what you'll get in the end, if the behavior or if the escape
for one's behaviors do not occur.
And then looking for collaboration between home and school, if that's possible.
It's not always possible in all situations, but in most situations that we deal with,
we have parents who are more than willing
to support successful behaviors in their-- in their children.
They're getting behaviors, if it's attention-seeking, what do you do?
Again, nonverbal and verbal reminders of when it's more appropriate to get attention.
So getting those secret signals between teachers and students.
As maybe a result of the behavioral contract
that I hope you're getting a little bit out of hand.
Remember, you want me to pay attention to you, we have lunch this afternoon, but, you know,
you have to pay attention to this or you can practice proximity control, you know,
making sure you're near somebody.
So that they don't have to seek or engage in a higher-level behaviors to get your attention.
Giving students leadership role.
Oftentimes, is all the attention that they need, providing attention
in the absence of the problem behavior.
So making sure that if the kid is getting lots of attention
when the behavior is going to occur.
So, then I know that's a little bit of extra work whether it could be short-term extra work,
to avoid long-term extra work of doing FBAs and developing new alternate behavior plans.
You could also, again, reinforce positive behavior, so.
To get behaviors, what to do if you've got students engaging in getting behaviors
to get material for activities again, the Premack, you know, if you want to play
with that computer thing, then you finish this, and the sooner you finish it,
the more time you'll have with the computer game.
Maybe again, in the token system, going or scheduling access.
Sometimes, kids, if you can schedule a little bit of time, doing what they want
across the day, they don't necessarily engage in those higher level behaviors
to get those materials [inaudible].
So those are some things to consider.
If you're engaging in getting behaviors or said to be seeking behaviors.
What do you do?
Well, you might try some of the antecedent modifications.
It could be a change of seating, a change in the schedule, you know, providing choices, you know,
for other ways of, you know, might be writing on certain materials versus other materials,
maybe chalk versus that you can use a marker instead.
So, you know, you got to think, you know, a lot of that.
Now, the other thing to keep in mind though that I do want to say that sensory behaviors
that they could quickly turn into attention-getting, and escape behaviors too.
So that could be kind of tricky.
And if it gets confusing and you can't figure it out in your own,
that's when you call in some help.
So, let's look at-- looking at plans for responding to misbehavior.
So the key is to prevent the beha-- the student from meeting their inappropriate behavior.
So we want to teach socially accepted behaviors as well as offer choices.
So, basically, you don't like the student to have the opportunity
to demonstrate the problem behavior.
That's your antecedent.
If you set up the situation in a specific way that prevents the student from having a need
to display the behavior, then you've just engaged in functional-based thinking
and antecedent manipulation to reduce the problematic behavior.
And that's really what you want to do, that's the gold standard.
Now, you're not going to be able to do that for some of your kids, but for most of the kids
that you have behavior problems with, you should be able to do that.
So keep in mind that correction procedures are only effective
if they reduce further occurrences of misbehavior.
So, in order to know whether whatever your plan for responding this behavior is working,
is to keep data and to see is it increasing or is it going away?
Here are some consequence strategies.
So you want to establish consequence strategies that fit the nature
of the problem, but that are mild as possible.
Don't, you know, don't out-consequence, you know, out-punish the behavior.
Implement consequences calmly and consistently.
That's the hardest thing to do, is to focus on breathing while you're dealing
with the behavior that's frustrating you.
And it's probably the most important piece is to be the gentle giant, and to become,
and consistent in your consequences.
And they all should be-- also should be implemented as immediately as possible.
So, some consequence strategies could be like extra work, positive practice, in other words,
doing it right, free times, restitution, picking things up, after school detention,
behavior contracts, restriction from privileges.
Again, if you're finding that you're consequating a behavior over and over
and over again, then the strategy is not working.
And that's when you need to call help.
You either think of another strategy, think of another antecedent, maybe there's an antecedent
that you couldn't manipulate, or that's when you call in help.
Here are consequence strategies that are not recommended.
Yelling, ignoring is not always the solution, becoming emotional,
making it up, you should go along.
If you find that you have persistent problems,
come up with a plan for [inaudible] at the problem.
And decide to react that way all day and then see if it makes the difference.
But-- but try not to make it up, because if you're making it up, they should go along
and you are responding to the behavior in a different manner each time the behavior occurs.
You could potentially be reinforcing that behavior and making it worse.
So come up with a plan.
Okay, do you have another question?
Yeah. How does reinforcement.
How do you reinforce positive and negative [inaudible].
How do you reinforce positive or negative behaviors occurring at the same time?
Well, you're not going to be able to.
It's hard to think that-- and what you may want to do is, if that's happening,
then you may want to think of another replacement behavior
that might be incompatible with the negative behavior.
So for instance, taking a chill, walking down the hall.
If her hands are in her pockets, she's not going to be able to trail the wall, right?
So that could be a possible solution.
Now, however at the same time, you want to make sure that, you know,
some of the stuff is not stigmatized in any way
that could actually create other problems as well.
So-- so that would be my suggestion if you're seeing both of them happening at the same time.
You may need to rethink your replacement behavior.
Okay, we're ready now for question number four,
so get ready to write down your response to this.
This is the fourth letter in your verification code.
What behavioral principles underlie all teacher-learner relationships?
A, rewards behavioral contracts and punishment, B, modeling,
error corrections, and reinforcement.
C, positive behavior support and explicit instruction.
Or, D, reinforcement, shaping, and those stimulus.
So I'll get ready to respond with the poll, thank you.
[ Silence ]
Okay, very good.
73 percent of you got the right answer, the correct response to this question is D,
reinforcement, shaping, and stimulus control.
Now, those are the behavioral principles
that underlie all teacher-learner relationships whether you're trying to get rid
of an inappropriate behavior or development of appropriate behavior.
Many of you responded to C, positive behavior support and explicit instruction.
And those are not necessarily behavioral principles.
So, you know, they are the reinforcement,
shaping and stimulus control are the basic behavioral strategies that you can think about.
However, these strategies, that's going to be part of a positive behavior support plan,
as well as in the explicit instruction that you're doing.
We did have a request to repeat some of the consequence strategies.
So I will repeat those.
Some of them could be time-owed.
So, in other words, for every minute that you are not doing whatever,
you will give me that time, or any other time during your day.
It could be extra work.
If you don't finish this assignment then you're going to have another one to take home with you.
It could be a positive practice, you know, you guys while walking your line,
so we're going to go do it again and we'll do it two or three times.
Restitution, thinking that, you know, restoring the environment and get rid
of some destruction of the environment.
After-school detention, behavioral contracts, restriction for privileges.
So these are consequences that for most of your kids will work and it might even work for some
of your kids who are beginning to have persistent problems.
But it's not an exhaustive list.
And it's really, really important to keep in mind that whatever you're doing isn't working,
if the behavior is not going away, then it's not a punishment.
Behaviors are not going away, whatever you are doing is not punishing that behavior.
We did have a question about our strategy where maybe you've got one student in your classroom
who is engaging in any appropriate behaviors and another kid who is not.
Would praising a peer for their appropriate behaviors be a good strategy to get the kid
to reduce the other student to reduce their inappropriate behaviors?
Yes, as long as it's important to that kid to get your praise.
So if he sees you saying "Oh, Billy has got his hand raised.
Johnny has got his hand raised."
And Antonio suddenly raises his hand.
Bingo! Yes, that worked.
"I like it Tommy you raised your hand.
I'm going to call on you."
Then you con him being good with a little bit of talking by praising others students.
However, if he sits there and it doesn't matter, then it's not going
to be an appropriate strategy because it did not work for what you were trying to do, okay?
So let's get back to the PowerPoint.
Monitoring, so when you start to make these hypothesis and you make a plan
and you start actually implementing the plan-- so let's say you're using plan ignoring
or you're going to consequate it with, you know, with lots of privileges or whatever.
You want to know if that's going to make any-- if what your plan is, is making a difference.
So that's where data collection becomes important.
It's really, really important to keep in mind that we are all under the power
of the last most dramatic behavior that occurred.
If we have just dealt with a bad, bad day,
it could feel like 16 bad days rather than just one.
So if we're not marking it down somewhere,
we really don't know if behaviors are getting better.
Also understand that behaviors do not get better overnight.
They get better by becoming less frequent and maybe further apart.
But rarely do behaviors just go away.
Now, if you catch a behavior early enough in the development and you can identify the function
and do the correct antecedent manipulations, then you might avoid having to even collect data
because it's gone, you know, you've done it and boom!
But if it becomes a persistent problem, you really want that data to make sure
that you given a fair amount of time to the interventions that you determined.
And also if you have a little bit of data on what you've done when you call in help,
that help might be more helpful to you.
In determining where it goes.
So your data collection should be ongoing, should be simple,
and should be compared to the baseline.
So if you notice persistent problems, start taking some notes.
You know, how frequently does it happen, when does it happen, where does it happen?
All those questions that we ask when we thought about what is most likely to happen
and what is most likely not to happen?
What does the data collection look like,
for you guys who are just doing this function-based thinking before you actually say,
"I need help, we need to do a formal FBA."
It can be anything, it can be a little text on a clipboard, it could be a piece of tape
that you put over in your hand, then you mark on top of it, with a little tick mark
with the pen each time the behavior occurs.
It could be a set of beans, or beads, or paper clips that you moved from one pocket
to the next every time the behavior occurs, it could be a golf counter, a knitting counter,
just whatever to know how many times a day does it happened, why is it happening.
It doesn't have to be anything that you could mark
down the calendar, it could be a series of sticky.
It's just some way for you to make some assessment of is this getting better or not.
If-- I'm going to go back to the slide because if you are doing a formal FBA,
and do or are engaged in implementing a behavior plan, the hope is, with every FBA,
you are having some kind of data, formal data questions
and then somebody obviously must be managing that, as well as, with a behavior plan,
there should be a data system in place to determine whether
or not behavior plan is effective.
If you are not collecting and comparing data,
how will you know if what you're doing is giving you the results that you want?
You've all done that.
So that data is very, very influenced.
And if that data is not getting any better, and you've tried everything that you know
to try, then what's the next step?
Well, you ask for help and that's when you're calling your team.
Okay, here is the last question.
What are the components of function-based behavioral support?
A. Consequences and rewards, B. Observe plan and monitor, C. Description and rate of occurrences
for each behavior, and D. Determine behavior function and replacement behavior.
So we'll get ready to open the poll and we'll be back in just a minute for the [inaudible].
[ Pause ]
Okay, we've got the results of the poll.
What were the results?
50 percent said B and D, 37 percent said D. So keep in mind we're talking
about function-based behavioral support.
So the basic components, when you're engaging
in function-based behavioral support is to observe the behavior.
Develop a plan and then monitor that plan.
So keep in mind, the observing is probably the most powerful piece that you have.
We've got in several questions about the impossibility of determining function,
or determining and receiving of the behavior.
So if you have a student who comes into the classroom angry and yelling with the intent
of getting your attention so that other kids don't get your attention then I don't know,
maybe that is supposed to be the function of the function to get your attention,
maybe but you know, you don't,
I mean the antecedent obviously is coming into the classroom.
But the strategy that's maybe more telling that this happens on a daily basis,
then you may want to rethink your schedule, pick the antecedent, what would they--
still didn't want come into the classroom.
So, you know, when does he-- does he ever not come into the classroom
without doing misbehaviors, so that's really why it's important to think about.
Not only this time, that they engaged
and then inappropriately here you split the time, so they don't.
So that's where your observation is.
The only behaviors that we truly have any control over is own.
So it's also really important to become aware of your own behaviors
and their effect on your learner, right?
And that's where the observation occurs.
Now sometimes it's really difficult to make this observations when you're in the middle of it
and if you've got a problem that's so persistent that you are really just--
you have no idea, you are totally confused on what the antecedents could possibly be.
Then that's when your behavioral problem is getting worse
and worse, then that's when you need help.
That's when you need somebody else to come in and assist you in observing,
as well as developing a plan and then monitoring.
So that's anytime you're dealing with any problem--
behavior problems that's the first step is observing, then determining the function coming
out with the plan and then collecting data so that you are honest about the results.
Okay. So remember a dime of prevention is worth a dollar of intervention.
So many times we wait until behaviors become so extreme and so problematic that then
by the time we seek help, the only solution we may have
in our head is he just needs to be out of this class.
And that's not-- we don't want to wait that long to ask for help with the behavior.
So and if the behaviors are extreme and actually the behaviors could result in risk to others,
then those are behaviors that you immediately are going to get outside help for.
And but again, a dime of prevention is worth a dollar of intervention.
So if you have another question, what about high school students, when they just don't care,
how do you let the ace work then?
Well, you know, they don't care, they don't care about a lot,
they don't care about the work then it's our responsibility as [inaudible]
to determine why that-- if why they don't care about it.
And if they have, if it's failure, maybe their task are too difficult,
maybe they don't really have any relationships in the class that are valuable to them.
You know, we're making a lot of assumptions right now about the "don't care,"
which is why it's really important to define behaviors rather
than to make assumptions about the behaviors.
Just-- and then working as a team to determine if, you know,
"doesn't care" is really the problem behavior or lazy--
so keep in mind, lazy is not a behavior, doesn't care isn't a behavior.
So I think when we can step away from these evaluative words.
Not compliant, you know, and really think about what the specific behaviors are,
when the behaviors occur and what we can do to avoid the behaviors.
And sometimes, it might feel like well, he's getting what he wants.
Well, he might be getting what he needs with the idea that we're going to shape
that behavior gradually by giving them a little extra attention,
or giving them a reduction in expectations.
Or, let me get an extra support for them like a token system.
In thinking about, you know, when you think about your tools, your free interventions
for kids with severe behavior problems.
So you throw all this "centeredness" say, to move them out of those high-level [inaudible].
Keeping in mind that our first priority as teachers always should be to,
how does learners and students experience success.
So research suggests that the earlier intervention is provided
for new-onset behaviors, the more expected behavioral change efforts, your efforts will be.
So that's the content.
We've answered a lot of questions, there's a lot of [inaudible] to cover in 2 hours as well,
I'm sorry I know you have a lot of questions about specific situation.
Here we have a question, if we have done everything for a child,
and then we ask for help, but the child is still not doing the right thing.
Then what can we do?
Well that again, if that's the case, then you should be under a formal or FBA
and behavior intervention plan, BIP system and working as a team
to determine that at the [inaudible].
So, if you know, if your supervisor or your principal is again involved,
you might have to have inter-agencies and then maybe additional services some other agencies.
You may call in your intermediate unit behavioral people but find out what's going
on with the student then really as a team, come up with the plan.
Okay, so and I think that's it for the questions for today.
So keep in mind that this is your verification code, were the answers to those five questions
with correct answers that I've highlighted in red for each of those five slides.
When you have to turn in this verification code before Friday, the end of the business
on Friday October the 19th, that's this coming Friday,
you need to get on to the internet, plug in this address.
This link to this electronic evaluation is here, when you click on this address or when you plug
in that address into your address bar, you will come to this site, you'll put your name,
your e-mail address, this information and you will enter your 5-letter code right here
to verify your participation during that webinar.
And then you'll hit the submit button.
So that's where-- that's what that one look like.
You can mind that our next webinar is on December the 19th and it's Tier 2 supports.
Things to do, for Tier 2 beyond check in and check out.
So please join us for that webinar on that day.
Again my name is Donna LeFevre.
If you have any questions, feel free to contact me at this e-mail, is best for me
and Tracy Ficca also is available via e-mail for responding questions.
We thank you for your attention and I wish you a good evening, thank you all.