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>> All right. The diehards are still here, I see. We've got until, what, 3 o'clock? Is that what you said? I've got a flight out, so I'll be on time this time. So I want to kind of pick up on some of
the themes that I touched on this morning and provide a little more detail and provide some specific resources and places that you can get methods, materials and strategies to promote
self-determination. I have a couple videos that I think do a good job of sort of illustrating the power of technology. And I'm going to show both of them. That will mean I will have to talk fast and
go through the rest of my slides more quickly. But honestly, most of the stuff, I can give you resources to get specific detail about once you know about it. So that's the plan. We're at an era now
where we're talking about college and career-readiness. So I wanted to kind of start with just a couple of comments about this notion of college and career-readiness. Some of us have been in the
field long enough that the term readiness makes us nervous because it was terms that were used ... I see some heads out there nodding. I won't point you out because it just means you're old like me.
But the old readiness models of transition and employment, I'll talk about that in a moment, were not as positive. For those of you who haven't been in the field 30 years, there's this myth that's
called the Myth of Readiness, or the jargon is, "pre means never" or "flow-through models don't work." In the '80s, when I began teaching, the predominant notion of transition, particularly for folks
with more extensive support needs, was that they needed to be ready to move on. There were a lot of readiness models. And in employment, the traditional readiness models illustrated in this snapshot
of a textbook, actually, John McDonald and Mike Hardman on successful transition programs for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, the idea was that you would prepare, if you're
an educator working transition, you're preparing young people to enter into this flow wherever best fit their needs. But it was almost always at the beginning of the flow. And that was in sort of
day-treatment work activities kinds of things. And the idea was that you spent some time in these. And these were always segregated. They focused on developing basic academic development, not much of
a focus on employment. The idea was you got used to being with people in environments like that. And once you gained a set of skills around that, you would then move up to the next level, which is
work activities. Thanks, David. Centers that did introduce a focus on employment. And the idea was there you got another set of skills until you were ready to go to the shelter workshop. And then in
the shelter workshop, you gained all this set of skills that would prepare you for what they called transitional employment. The most common way to think about this was the enclave models where you
still had groups of people with disabilities working. But it was in a typical work setting. And then, finally, you would be ready to move into a real job. Now, of course, at most of these levels,
you're not actually making any money. At the sheltered workshop level, you're making pennies to the dollar, right? Enclave, a little bit. But all of them were sub-minimum wage. Now, the problem with
the flow-through model that we soon learned was that nobody ever really flowed through. The average time for flowing through was 57 1/2 years. I just made that up. But the fact of the matter is
people got in, and they stuck. There was no getting out of the shelter workshop. There was no learning new skills. These readiness models, in whatever configuration, have not panned out to be very
useful. If you want a job, you go out, and you get a job. You get some skills. You get the supports. You go out through supported employment. So many of our heros, certainly when I was a public
school teacher, the work of Lou Brown and his colleagues. Lou's pictured there on the left. About "pre means never," we need to be out in the community. Folks need to be learning in the community.
That's where you get the skills that enable you. Once again, I think we had a circumstance with college and career-readiness where folks in transition and folks working around employment issues for
people with disabilities simply weren't at the table. And once again, we've had to re-educate the field because they just don't think of the folks that we support and work with and care about as
being part of this world of work. So it's a continuing problem. I think a lot of the issues with college and career-readiness are issues that we ought to be engaged with. We ought to be front and
And we ought to be emphasizing that, "Hey, students that we support can, in fact, be successful." And I think, probably, the most dramatic illustration of this is that, really, over the last decade
and mostly over the last 5 years, there has emerged this entire system of college-based programs and supports for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Of course, college was never
an outcome for many of the folks who had cognitive impairments. And in a very short period of time, models have been designed. And some of them are better than others. These things have come in a
little too segregated at times for my liking. But we'll just run with it. But these are examples of how, if you kind of begin to think about things a little differently, put aside notions and
preconceptions, people can succeed. Some of you will probably work in sort of 18 to 21 realm for students with disabilities. Boy, as much as I would like to think that we could do this at the public
school level, too many times across the country, it just becomes 3 more years of the same bad high school experience. There are exceptions. And there are probably exceptions in this room. But it's
difficult for public schools to figure this stuff out. It's hard. And it's not all the public school's fault. Ideally, you want 18 to 21 programs be in places where young people can interact with
their peers without disabilities. Well, that's colleges, community colleges, workplaces to some degree. But as soon as a program makes inroads in getting some space in a university or a college, a
year later, the university is saying, "No, we need that space back." Space is always such an issue. So it's very difficult. And if you don't know anything about this, go to thinkcollege.org. This is
a group out of UMass Boston that organizes this. Lots of good information on their website about programs and supports at college for young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
But the good thing about these things is that the university owns these. They have taken ownership over these programs.
>> Can I just add on this topic, there's an organization in Pennsylvania called DREAM Partnership. And it's working with colleges in Pennsylvania to do that. It says they're a local contact ...
>> Good. DREAM Partnerships. I'm supposed to repeat things into the mic so they can hear it on the recording. So a local contact in Pennsylvania is DREAM Partnership.
>> And also, here in Pennsylvania, we have the first such program in the state. I think PSU has been around for 16 years.
>> Good. Yeah. There are a number of programs that have been around. And there are a number of new ones. The University of Kansas finally got up and running with one. So we have one starting up this
year. So there are more and more of them. There's still not enough out there. Parents and family members will say, "Gosh. I don't want my son or daughter to have to go all the way to California or
somewhere." But it sounds like there are some options around here. And I think it'll keep growing. And like I said, the good thing about these is that they're owned by the university or the college
or whatever else. They're not going to be thrown out.
>> Right. And there are these ... They're called dual enrollment programs where they're still enrolled in the public schools. And they go. But there's all sorts of models. In some places, you actually
have to graduate from high school in order to move into the thing. They've got residential versions. They've got non-residential versions. There's all sorts of things. Again, thinkcollege.org has a
lot of that information. I kind of emphasized before, we do know how to do a lot of this stuff that I talked about this morning. So we're not starting from scratch. We've been around. I was a public
school teacher throughout the 1980s working with adolescents, broadly defined as anyone between 12 and 21 years of age, with severe disabilities. And I can remember sitting and teaching students how
to sort by shape, color and size and to stuff envelopes, and, God, I was bored to tears. And I'm sure the students were more bored. And then I went to this workshop in 1984 run by Paul Wayman. And I
saw these young people doing meaningful jobs for real pay. And I went back the next day. And I could no longer, morally, ethically, no longer just prepare young people for the shelter workshop. If
you look at the history, and a lot of my references and my experiences with people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, I'm trying not to be overly specific to that population because
these are issues for all young people. In fact, a lot of our work now is with kids that don't have disabilities. And I forgot what I was going to say after that brief disclaimer. So I'll come back to
that. But these are programs that have been around for a long time, these are strategies. And of course, we've got supportive employment. We've got self-employment. We've got customized employment
that's sort of an amalgamation of all of those that are all about supporting people to plan, work, either self-employment or moving into a job. I remember what I was going to say. In the
developmental disability world, if you look at the living, where people live, stuff, it's been a huge success. We're still stuck in the 1980s with group homes unfortunately. But if you looked at the
institutions census, peaked in America in 1978 at 250,000 people living in state-run institutions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. At that same time, there were fewer than
300 community-based residential supports. Now you go down and just look at the number of people. There are fewer than 25,000 people in America living in large, state-run institutions. Half the states
now have closed them. Has Pennsylvania closed all of theirs yet? Kansas hasn't either. We'll keep working on it though, right? We're getting there. They are economically unviable anywhere near
future. They will close. It is not an economically viable model. And there are more than 650,000 people receiving some sort of, usually waiver-based, supports for living in the community. It's been a
dramatic change. Now this is the same kind of information in employment. And what you have here is, in the late 1980s, the top graph with the triangles are the total number of people receiving any
kind of state employment-related supports, okay? And you can see that it's almost doubled over the course of the year. This runs up through 2010. The bottom with the squares are people who are
receiving those supports in integrated settings. And you can see, from the mid '80s to the early mid-'90s, there was a general increase. But then we just plateaued, to use a term. We've made almost
no gain. Now compare that to the dramatic changes in employment. I've wondered why. I think part of it is it's easy to make the case that we should live in our communities. People buy that. People
understand that. But they still think of jobs as a privilege. They think of work as something that only some people can do, apparently. So we've got to change that mentality. I mean, good gosh. And
then, of course, we know this matters because this is weekly wages in 2010 dollars. The top line is the general population with the circles. You see the dip there as the Great Recession hit. I would
guess that's trundled back up to the mid $700 a week. The middle graph is all people with disabilities. So at just under $400 a week. And then the bottom with the triangles are people with
intellectual and developmental disabilities. So at $200 a week. I don't know anyone living the good life at $200 a week or $400 a week. Do you? That's not really going to get us very far. And I think
what's amazing about these data is how little it's changed. We've made no progress toward going up toward the norm that would be what everyone else in our society is making. So this stuff matters.
We're at a point, I think, where it's really important that these issues of work and transition to work are addressed in our society. So let me talk a little bit more, then, about on building the
bridge, these issues of technology. As I said this morning, there are huge opportunities. This is a very complicated graph that is hardly worth showing. But it just shows the major emerging trends in
technology. So this is the year 2000 here at the start of the arrow. So you couldn't buy stuff online until the late '90s, early 2000s. I mean, I'll buy stuff online all the time now. Half of my
purchases are online. But that was early 2000s when that really ... Smart phones didn't come about until just right after 2000s. They seem like they've been here forever. Social web, Facebook, kind
of presences. Cloud computing showed up about 2005. I can tell you that none of you had an iPad in April of 2010. And the reason I can tell you that ... Actually March of 2010, is because they
weren't introduced until April of 2010. And yet they feel like they've been here forever, right? There are now, like, 200 bazillion iPad units that are out there. But those didn't even come ... And
tablets really didn't come along until right in there. So as we're looking into the future, like I said, the buildout of the cloud will be a huge thing. You're seeing this already. My dad has, for
years, bought this genealogy software, Family Tree Maker, I think it's called. You bought the CD. You loaded it up. Every 5 or 6 years, they made it obsolete. You had to rebuy it. You can't buy that
anymore. You have to just purchase access to the cloud-based version of this. You upload all your data. That's where all these things are heading. So the buildout of the cloud will take some time,
but it has a lot of real benefits. Predictive analytics, which is the use of big data to ... It's why, when you look for a particular book on Amazon, then you check in on Facebook, holy cow, there's
an ad right there for that very same book. So be careful when you open up your social media around people, what you've been searching for and other things. But all of these things are going to become
more and more seamless. They're actually going to have benefits. We have huge issues around privacy that we've got to solve. This is a graph from Bill Coleman at the Coleman Institute on Cognitive
Disabilities. If you want the latest of information on issues around technology for people with cognitive disabilities but moreso technology and the way it's going to impact life, go to the Coleman
Institute on Cognitive Disabilities at the University of Colorado. If you just Google Coleman Institute Cognitive Disabilities, you'll get to lots and lots of information. And if you have the
opportunity, it's a great way to learn about what's really interesting, most of which I can't really relay because I'm not that smart. But they assure me, the folks that do this, assure me that there
will be privacy. We will be able to protect our data. I mentioned one of the ways you can do this is that systems build in multiple means of identifying who you are. It's not just you have a
password, but there's other sources of information. Again, I don't understand it. But these issues of privacy will have to be dealt with. 3D printing and then the Internet of Things is going to
introduce a whole new way of thinking about supports. And it's going to be revolutionary for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. So I wanna show two videos because videos are
much more interesting than me talking. We've worked for a long time with a group out of Colorado Springs, Colorado, Ablelink Technologies, who do technology supports for people with intellectual and
developmental disabilities. The only drawback of this video is it's now 6 years old, so it's a little dated. But I think it illustrates how simple infusing technology into somebody's life can be and
what a significant impact it can make. And then the second one is a project that's happening over in the UK that is using some fairly basic sort of social media-type technologies to support families
and schools to communicate about transition-related issues. So I'm just going to show both of these. And I think you get a sense of the power that technology has potentially to make really good
It's amazing when the technology actually works too.
>> Come on, Rita. Time to go home. Time to go home, girl. Okay. Ready to go home? Enough racetrack for one day? Yeah. There you go. Let me unwrap that so I don't trip. Let's do it.
>> Welcome home, Rusty. Your apartment is secure.
>> I'm taking these off. Come on, Rita. Come on, Rita. Oh, I'm sorry. We are out of dog treats. Like an apple?
>> You have new e-mails from Cindy.
>> I got your message, Rusty. Yeah, I'd love to come over tomorrow night. Make something good. I'll be hungry.
>> Hey, Rita. We've got work to do. We are in real trouble. I don't know what I'm going to fix for Cindy.
>> Safety alert. The stove is on.
>> Woops. How come you didn't turn the stove off? Aw, man.
>> Sis is calling.
>> Ooh, got a phone call.
>> Sis is calling. Touch me.
>> Hi, Rusty. I just sent you the shopping list on your mobile.
>> Hi, Sis.
>> Thank you. I'm on my way to the store.
>> Sounds good.
>> Say hi to the boys for me.
>> Oh, okay. I will. They're looking forward to going to the movie with you next week. See you later.
>> This is not your stop. Don't get off the bus. This is not your stop. Don't get off the bus. Okay, it's time to signal your stop. Okay, it's time to signal your stop.
>> I'd like $40 from my checking account, please.
>> Voice fingerprint match successful. Transaction approved.
>> Here's the shopping list. Press next to start. One jar of spaghetti sauce as shown in the picture.
>> Hi, girl. Did you miss me? Well, now we've got everything we need. See? I did not forget you, girl. And here. Well, girl. I'll take ... Now get this place cleaned up. I'll do the kitchen and the
bathroom, and you can do the den. Let me know when you get done. There. That's a lot better. Hey, girl. Let's see if they've caught that white whale yet.
>> "Moby-Dick" by Herman Melville. Now continuing your story. At last, some four or five of us were summoned to our meal in an adjoining room. It was cold as Iceland ... And besides the bedside and
center table, could see no other furniture belonging to the place but a wood shelf, the four walls and a [INAUDIBLE] representing a man striking a whale ...
>> Time to take [INAUDIBLE], Rusty.
>> Into the room, there was a hammock.
>> The prompt was to take his medicine.
>> Did you catch that white whale yet? Oh, sis sent me that recipe. I don't think he wants breakfast for supper. Good night, girl.
>> Things to do before leaving for work. Plug in your computer. Turn off the coffee pot. Turn off the lights. Take Rita for her morning walk.
>> Well, hey there, Rusty.
>> How you doing?
>> You and Rita are out a little early today, huh?
>> Doing okay.
>> Yes, we are.
>> Hey, I was wondering. Do you want to come over and watch the Packer game tonight? It ought to be a good one.
>> Aw, we've got plans made.
>> Oh, yeah.
>> You do? Well, okay.
>> All right. A big plan made then.
>> Well, good for you. That sounds like fun. Well, hey, maybe next time then.
>> Oh, yes.
>> All right, dude. Well, we'll see you around. Enjoy your walk.
>> We sure will. Thank you. Well, I'm off to work. See you later. Rita, I thought I told you stay off the bed. Well, it's 4 o'clock. I'll be home soon. Hi, Rita. Let's go. Come on. We've got to get
dinner ready. Well, I hope my sister sent me that recipe.
>> Here's my recipe for spaghetti.
>> See, Rita. I told you. Let's see what we got. You were worried for nothing.
>> First, put the hamburger in the pan. Get out the big pan for the noodles. Add the sauce to the meat and mix it together. Good job. Now it's time to eat.
>> Let's have some music.
I love you
I'll always be true
Oh, please love me do
Oh, love me
>> Hi, Rusty.
>> You look very nice today and pretty too. Mm. Want something to eat?
>> Oh, yes.
>> That would help if we put cheese on.
>> Well, Cindy. I've finished up in here. It's your turn to pick the movie.
>> Tap again. Where would you like your movie played? Big screen.
>> What movie did you pick?
>> "Lady and the Tramp."
>> That went pretty well, didn't it, girl? Boy, I had a fun time. What do you think, girl?
>> Click here to send an e-mail. Now pick the picture of the person you want to send an e-mail to. Start recording your e-mail message after you hear the beep.
>> Hey, Sis. Thank you for the recipe. Cindy really liked the spaghetti. Only one thing left to say: Thank you very much.
>> Is that available online?
>> It is. It's available on YouTube. And you just do a YouTube search for "Living the Smart Life." And I think the simplicity of that illustrates the power of even a little bit of technology. So a
couple of things. Yes, the dog threw up. Rusty and Cindy are actually married and live together in Colorado Springs. And they use every bit of that technology that you saw. The only thing not
commercially available at the time that movie was made was the voice thumbprint ATM, which, of course, who thinks that isn't going to be available, right? That's just a matter of time. Everything
else is commercially available. It happens to be through AbleLink Technologies. So if you go to their website, you get more information. Rusty doesn't need a whole lot of support, but think about all
the times that somebody would've had to been doing things for or to him that that technology ...
>> What if they don't even need that technology? You said it's not commercially available. There's so many things available that you wouldn't need to go to the ATM.
>> Right, exactly right. Right. And again, I mentioned this is becoming obsolete. This was sort of pre-tablet-era. So the tablets look chunky. The way-finding devices that he was using, that's just
GPS stuff in your iPhone, your smartphones. So it's a matter of building out systems that utilize this stuff, seeking it out. It's available now. Part of the problem is that it's early adopter
issues, that it doesn't work all the time. But there's so much out there that will, I think, provide incredible opportunities. So this is the use of social media in transition planning for a young
man who is in transition era, and I'll just let it speak for itself. This is out of the UK.
>> My name is Sam Bergin Goncalves. I live in the London Borough of Greenwich with my husband and my two children. And we are a pilot family in the Greenwich Pathfinder, trialing out the new single
plan. I see it as a really exciting time to try new ways of working. It's really important to me that this work is done with us as a family and that every opportunity for everybody to be really
person-centered in the process is very important. So welcome to Shane's Wiki. So I'll just show you how easy it is to log into my son's wiki. And we have a username. And obviously, for all young
people with disabilities, they will have their own personal username for their wiki. And some young people like to use pictures as the password. So they also have that option. It has six main
sections. And for all young people with disabilities, that can be really personal to them. So when we're thinking about person-centered planning, it's really important that we give each person the
opportunity to choose what is really important to them in their life and how it affects them and therefor create their own headings for each section. And we have Shane in the middle because we
believe Shane should be at the center of everything we do, obviously, as a family, but also for everybody who's working with Shane, his circle of support, his therapists, his teachers, etc. So we
have a nice picture of Shane in the middle to remind everyone Shane is the center of everything we do. And I'll just give you a little tour on our family. I think this is a really important section.
>> This is Mommy and Shane reading a book. This is Daddy and Shane relaxing on the sofa. This is me, Daniel, the artist. Go on. Hit the ball, Shane. Hit the ball. Yeah. You hit the colors, Shane.
>> Shane uses the Makaton sign for brother to mean Daniel. If Shane does this sign and I am not around, please tell him where I am.
>> This is a really, really valuable piece of information. And as I explained earlier, Shane has a really strong bond with his brother. If he's at school and he signs and somebody ignores him and
doesn't respond to him, he can bang his head. And if he signs again and he's still not being listened to, he may throw himself on the ground. Then I'm being told he's got challenging behavior when,
actually, what's happened is the person who's supporting Shane is not understanding his communication. All Shane wanted was somebody to say, "Daniel's not here at the moment. He's at school." And he
would have carried on with his day with no problem. Having the videos on the wiki means that both the music therapist and the speech therapist can share their practice and their workings with Shane
and, afterwards, reflect on it, look at the videos and really see what is actually working for Shane.
Shall I go or shall I stay
I think I'll stay
I think I'll stay
La, la, la, la, la, la
>> I must admit, we were very excited as a family when we received this footage from school. Shane is following a MOVE program, which is Movement Opportunities Via Education. And one thing he was
working on with the class was how to pivot. And they transferred that skill into a functional task with him independently being able to bring his own snack to the table, which is a really big
achievement for Shane. We weren't doing that at home. And when I saw the video, we immediately thought, "Wow. We can try this at home." So although I believe I'm the expert on Shane, I'm also
learning from other professionals. And they gave us some really valuable information on what Shane is able to achieve. And now we are also doing that at home with Shane and giving him his bowl and
making him take his own snack to the table. And transferring and having consistency. Consistency at home and at school means that Shane has a much better opportunity to perfect skills which are
really going to help him in his adult life.
>> Please take care to put his AFOs on correctly so they don't rub. This is very sore for Shane, and he could get blisters.
Say what you say
Or just sail away
She can't stand me
But I miss her face
I feel like drowning
But the tide's too low
>> I think this video on the wiki has had a huge impact on Shane's life. Prior to this, every now and again, he would get a blister. When Shane gets a blister, he can't wear his AFOs. If he can't wear
his AFOs, he can't walk. If he can't walk, he's -- he's not independent. And also, he can suffer with severe constipation. If it gets really, really bad, he can end up in hospital. Since we've had
this video on Shane's wiki for 2 years, we've not had one blister. If ever he comes home from school and his splints are slightly undone, I immediately send an e-mail into class. All the learning
support assistants get a quick retrain in 2 minutes. It only takes 2 minutes to look at this video. They're not waiting for the visiting physio who may only come twice a week. So it has really had a
benefit, not only for Shane, but for the staff to feel confident that they're looking after him correctly. One good thing about the wiki, you can see there, I've got Shane's visual impairment report.
We're able to keep, in one place, all of Shane's therapy reports, his medical reports, his annual review, his transition plan, feeding plan, his behavior plan. His single plan is even now on the
wiki. And it's really, really useful because I sometimes feel, by the time you're 15, which Shane's 15 now, you almost need the double extension to your house just to store the paperwork that you
build up over the years. Now having it all in one place means that I'm not rummaging through papers when, say, a new professional wants to make reference to a report relating to Shane. Through
creating the wiki as a family and gathering pictures and having time afterwards to just reflect and look at Shane's life, it has helped us to really think about our future goals and aspirations for
Shane. Just before Shane was 14, we knew his transitions review was coming up. We knew this was a really important review for Shane and for us as a family because we would be thinking and starting to
plan for Shane's future. Prior to this, I was getting apprehensive and worried that people who would be involved in the planning and helping us make decisions would only be looking at pieces of
paper, would only be focusing on Shane's disabilities, on the things he needs help with and not focusing on Shane as a person. First and foremost, Shane is a 15-year-old young man. He just happens to
have some additional needs. And when I learned about the Rick Center and wikis, I was really excited because I saw, "Here is my opportunity to create something to share with the people at the meeting
about Shane and his life, and, hopefully, through looking at the videos and photographs and analyzing Shane in different settings, they would get a feel for his personality, and then the type of
planning that I want for my son would happen. So I thought I would give it a go at home with Shane to teach him how to operate his wiki. And I thought it would be really good if, at his review, he
could come, and he could show his life himself.
>> Go on, Shane. All right, sit down.
>> Shane, you ready for shower for Shane? For shower for Shane. Shower for Shane. Good boy.
>> Shane managed to stay at his annual review for 35 minutes. At key transition points in young people's life, new professionals suddenly become involved. They have never met your child. So on this
occasion, new professionals not only got to see and have access to Shane's wiki and get a really good picture of him but also to meet Shane. Prior to this, Shane wouldn't have been there. They would
not have met him. And they would be making decisions purely based on pieces of paper. I'm very keen to kind of explore how multimedia can feed into that and how we can involve, through multimedia,
Shane's whole circle of support so that when we set outcomes, that they're true life outcomes and that everything we're doing is helping Shane towards a more independent life. Shane's brother,
Daniel, is a really key person in his circle of support. And we always try and involve him in everything, and we ask his opinion. So when we were thinking about setting life outcomes for Shane, we
asked Shane's brother what he thought.
>> What's important to Shane in the future: to live with us at home, to see his friends, to be able to walk, to learn new skills and to go on holidays with us. Actually, it's just what I want to do,
only Shane needs everyone's help for this to happen.
>> Again, there's nothing terribly complicated about this wiki technology. I think somebody with some skills, HTML skills, could build these kinds of things. But the power of being able to
communicate, to share, to build relationships and, from my perspective, the importance of being able to show Shane as a person and to get to know Shane as somebody who has personality and strengths
as opposed to just really complicated medical or behavioral-related issues. Shane doesn't have to take on the same reputation coming into a new setting because people will get to see him in this
role. And it's also, to some degree for Shane, who has obviously very limited ways of communicating things, he's clearly able to understand and communicate who he is through this wiki, which is, of
course, a very powerful thing around these issues of self-determination. That's also online. It was Vimeo, so it wasn't YouTube. I think it was on vimeo.com. But if you Google Shane's wiki, you get
to it. So those are just illustrations of the power that technology has, I think.
>> If someone downloads your handout, you've got all those things on your handout.
>> Oh, good point. Yeah, I'm just reminded that you all have my PowerPoint, so you have those links already. And this is just another illustration. So, as part of this Coleman Institute I was talking
about, they developed a project that was looking at smart transportation. I don't care what state you're in. I don't care where you are. Transportation is always among the top three barriers to
employment, right? It doesn't matter if you live in large urban centers. It doesn't matter if you live in rural areas. It's always there. So this is an example of technology supporting the use of
fixed-route transit systems. So there are systems that are geared for kind of personalizations, but those don't seem to work very well in my experience. People end up waiting for a long time, or
taxis or buses don't show up. So this is dealing with the Boulder, Colorado fixed-route bus system. If you've had to ride fixed-route bus systems, you know that when you transfer, it can be very
confusing. And there are multiple buses often coming into a major hub. And you've got to know which bus to get on. And of course the risk of getting lost, the consequences can be so dramatic that
people aren't willing to run the risk, right? So this is a system that uses what now is just embedded in your smartphone. So a local area network that comes all around the Boulder, Colorado area ...
University of Colorado's in Boulder, which is why they were doing it there. And there's a central location, which one or two people are in front of a computer. And that local area network sort of all
connects into that. Each bus is equipped with smart vehicle technology, so GPS, telemetry data, mobile wireless, other things. And then the user, this could be somebody who has a disability, could be
an elderly person, it's anyone who might need a little additional support to use this bus system, has a device. Now, this is back several years ago, so it was kind of an early device. Now this device
is just your iPhone does all these things. It has global positioning satellite data, voice, video, audio, all this stuff. So what happens is that a person using this system is at a bus stop. So it'll
do the kinds of things that you saw Rusty's doing. That is to say, "This is not your bus. Don't get on this bus. Wait until that bus." So you're able to link it so that it knows exactly which bus.
Every bus driver knows that there is a person at whatever stop who's using the system. So you've got a human being on the bus keeping an eye out for a person who might be using it. And then if the
person does, by some circumstance, end up getting lost, you can be in immediate voice, video contact with the local area network. And so they can say, "Okay. Well, hold up your phone. Scan around.
See where that tree is over there? Go to that tree. And then we'll reprogram. And you'll catch the bus when it comes on." So nothing is 100 percent foolproof. But this goes a long way toward making
fixed-route transit systems accessible cognitively. We'd still have physical access issues. And nothing on this is technology that hasn't been around for 5, 10 years now. In fact, the first sort of
version of this I saw was coming out of Sweden in the late '90s. So these kinds of things are going to help us solve problems that lead to the barriers that are in place in our communities. All
right. So let me go through some of the things in terms of ... And this is a focus more on what should secondary education transition look like in terms of promoting self-determination. When I go
out, when we work with schools, what are we looking at? What are we telling them to do? So this list of what we've called component elements of self-determined behavior are individually the kinds of
things that should be a part of the educational programs of all students most likely, but certainly students with disabilities. These are lifespan, so let me give you an example. Choice-making,
problem-solving, decision-making are sort of closely linked to activities. I'll show you. Both choice-making and problem-solving are embedded in decision-making skills. And but they also form a
lifespan development kind of scenario. So infants come into the world pretty much already having preferences. Preferences are hardwired to us. So the early child development literature tells us that
2-week-old neonates have a preference for ovals over triangles. Now why would they have a preference for ovals over triangles?
>> Mom's face.
>> Mom's face is an oval, and that's where food comes from. So that's one of these species kinds of evolutionary things that have hardwired. And of course, all of you who have had kids or had nieces
or nephews and have worked with very young children, you know by 6 months of age, they've got all the preferences in the world. And then they can begin to crawl. And everything goes haywire in terms
of you having to move everything up in your house and whatever else. So a lot of the choice-making things are not about teaching preferences. But very young children, it helps them begin to
understand that they have a voice, that they have some control over their environment. These are precursor skills to what we later call self-regulation. And it teaches young people that they can
impact. The other thing with very young children is that they learn that not every option is available to them in the world because a young child wants what it wants, and it wants it now. And, of
course, that's not the way the world works. It's a cruel thing to have to learn early on. So then problem-solving. So if you try to teach a problem-solving scenario to a 5-year-old, you're not going
to be very successful because, by and large, 5-year-olds developmentally aren't ready for this. And they run into a problem, they don't really recognize problems. They just divert. So they come to a
problem. They go do something else. So the developmental processes that begin to enable you to begin to think about problem-solving emerge in early but mainly late elementary school. So that is where
instruction to promote problem-solving should begin is late elementary school. And it's pretty well shown that by middle junior high, kids can solve problems at a level that is pretty equivalent to
adult. And then the decision-making process is a process that begins with the problem-solving process. You got to know what the options from which you're making decisions are. And it ends with making
a choice. So it sort of integrates all of that. So developmentally, you want to begin working on decision-making sort of late junior high, middle school, early high school. Again, the developmental
literature, by age of 14, most young people have the cognitive ability to make decisions that are comparable to what an adult would be. We all know that young people tend to ignore those cognitive
things. And so there's lots of things that we can do and talk about that. But that's a lifespan approach. So we need to be doing this. These issues of self-determination don't just emerge. Nothing's
too late, and nothing's too little. Doing anything is preferable to doing nothing. But if we're waiting until high school to address these things, we've missed the better part of 15, 16 years of
things. And I think, you look at most elementary schools, they actually do a decent job of incorporating language around problem-solving and things into that. I worry a little bit that middle and
junior high becomes the great gulf where nothing happens. And then so we got to move this stuff back to when kids enter that. So I could go through a similar developmental trajectory for most of
these things. So the gist is we begin working on these things early. And by the time young people hit adolescence, they've acquired greater skills. What we're looking at in terms of the emergence of
self-determination, first of all, there's this capacity component. So kids learn the skills that enable them to be more effective problem-solvers, decision-makers to do those kinds of things. I'll
say it a dozen times between now and 1. And that's only half an hour, so that's a lot. Remember my point this morning, self-determination is about making things happen in your own life. It's not
about doing things yourself. It's not about doing things independently. I'm not interested in kids having to become independent decision makers or independent problem-solvers. I'm not talking about
having to solve very complicated medical problems on your own. Heck, we don't do that. We rely on physicians. We rely on family and friends. We turn to people who've had a similar medical condition.
Decision-making is more often a collaborative team event than it is a solo event. So the point here is that we're engaging students in these things. We're engaging students in setting goals. And
we're engaging them in decision-making processes. We're engaging them in learning to solve problems. And what will happen, and I have 25-plus years of experience, is that they'll do better than you
think they would. We've done study after study after study. We always collect social validity data from teachers. We want to know what teachers thought of the interventions. And one of the things
that I don't think I've ever had a teacher not say is, "Johnny did a lot better than what I thought he would." We were putting him in a different context. So much of this is about giving opportunity.
So capacity development, but opportunity. Ray Gagne's story this morning, we have to provide multiple, multiple opportunities for young people to try and to learn. That's how the rest of us learned
all this stuff. God, I was so ill-prepared to be a young adult when I got married and moved out. Had there been somebody in place with any authority, they'd have restricted it, I'm sure. I would've
had to acquire many more skills. You learn stuff. You get out there. You do stuff. You figure out these things. So opportunities, and particularly schools building opportunities that promote
exploring. And then the kinds of supports and accommodations that are going to be necessary for kids to be successful that I've been talking about. So that's what we're looking at in terms of sort of
a general scheme of things. In general, we're looking for instruction on these component elements. And preferably across the lifespan, but certainly by middle school and high school. So we want
instruction on goal-setting, problem-solving, decision-making. There are curricular materials. I'm going to give you references. You have my handouts already. So you have resources. And I'll show you
where you can go to get many of these. Many of these are free. None of us have become independently wealthy in this particular line of research and development. It's very gratifying. It's important
work. But it's not particularly profitable. So we give it away, and that's fine. That gets it out there. And then active student involvement in educational planning. I've had administrators come up
to me at some point and say, "Oh, we tried self-determination, and it didn't work." And of course there is no response to that. But what they were saying was, "We tried some student-directed
transition planning package that didn't work for our district" is really what they were saying. And there's all sorts of packages out there. But it's also just as simple as having a young person do a
PowerPoint. Shane, that was sort of a student-directed transition meeting, wasn't it? My sons are now young men. One of them just graduated from college this year. The other one's in a doc program
and getting married this year. I'm getting old. This is very discouraging. But when we moved to Kansas City area, my younger son was just entering kindergarten. And my older son was entering third
grade. And this district we were in, Blue Valley in Overland Park, Kansas, had implemented school-wide student involvement in planning in parent-teacher planning meetings. So this was every kid in
the district, didn't have anything to do with disability, every kid in the district. Beginning in first grade, there were two parent-teacher meetings held every year, one in the fall, one in the
spring. And the second one was student-run. And what they did, they had a little two-pager. And the kid would say, "In math, here's what I did really well. I worked on such and such. And here's where
I do." And they pull out an example from their portfolio of good work. And then they would say, "And I need a little more work on such and such." They'd identify that. And they put this into a
PowerPoint. And I remember my older son being excited. He got in late, by third grade. But my younger son, who was a kindergartner, they don't start this until first grade. So he saw this happening
with my older son. And he became very excited. The night before my then-first-grade son's self-run parent-teacher meeting, we never got him to sleep. He was so excited. He was wanting to talk to us
about it. You know how first graders are about this. I thought, "If we did this, we would never have the battles we have in transition. We would have to quit talking bad about kids." So many kids,
they go to a meeting, and all they hear is the things that they can't do and what they're bad at and blah, blah, blah, blah, blah. But we just move this back. And we involve kids in meaningful ways,
let them do these things. I think we've just sort of missed the boat on that. And we need to back that up. We need to move it out of the realm of a disability thing and a realm of all kids are doing
these kinds of things. All right. So instruction on these component elements, I'm going to go quickly. You have these slides. Honestly, it's not rocket science. I am not going to have to teach you to
do various forms of calculus in order to be able to do this stuff, right? It's more about the intent. It's just saying, "Oh, okay. This is important, and we'll start doing this." So choice is simply
an indication between two or more options. It's a preference. And for so many kids with disabilities ... Napoleon Bonaparte says, "Ability is of little account without opportunity." So much about
choice-making is about opportunity to make and select choices. The research we've done shows that choice opportunity is a huge predictor, huge. I don't know why that's in my vocabulary now. I don't
think I've ever said that that way before. Being influenced by current political ... Huge. A significant impact on ... And that wasn't a political statement. I was just saying I've heard a lot of
things. So it's about giving kids opportunity. And so much of this is true. So the analogy, how do we teach kids to ride a bike, right? We typically sit them on a bike. And we throw them down the
hill. "Bye!" Okay, we got training wheels on it. They're not going to crash and burn too much. But there's a certain amount of risk. I'm sure that many a parent has felt bad because their son or
daughter has gone crashing off of that. But you just get out and do it, right? Now if we did swimming the same way, I'm not sure that's really such a good idea. Boom, you're in the deep end, go for
it. No, we got to teach swimming. I can remember back to when my kids were little, you'd stand in the 1 inch of water. And they'd have you doing this. And then the water got to 6 inches. And then,
eventually, you're hanging off. There's a sequence. And there's a set of skills. We tend to treat everything like it's teaching swimming when it's not. We just need to provide more opportunities. So
opportunities and choice-making, really focus on this in elementary. But think about the number of choices and decisions that high schoolers make in a typical day, hundreds and hundreds and hundreds.
So we need to be focusing on this lifespan as well. It's about opportunities. And so, particularly, if kids have communication issues, if they have mobility issues. And I think the data on autism and
self-determination speaks to this as well. They're not autonomous because they're not getting out in their communities. Why is that? It's not because they don't walk. There are lots of factors. You
can't know if you like a roller coaster until you've ridden on a roller coaster, right? There are just some things you can't know from virtual reality. Maybe you can from virtual reality. But it'll
be a while before that's all out there. So students with communication impairments may not be able to express their preferences. And they get stuck with preferences they had when they were 3 because
nobody bothers to try and find something that other 18-year-old males might be interested in doing kinds of things. And then, again, students with autism spectrum disorders who might have very
focused areas of preference, that can create difficulties in other things. But on the other hand, it is a preference. And we got to figure out how to value that and then still encourage and support
students to make the kind of achievement that they want. So again, particularly important in the early years. And again, people's preferences change. So if you're working with a kid that has limited
communication or another thing, get them out. Let them figure out what they like. Try all sorts of different things. It's easy to integrate choice-making into steps of teaching. You let a student
choose when they do something between a couple of actions that get them to the same objective. It's just not all that difficult. Problem-solving, a problem is a circumstance or event for which you
don't know the solution. So you got to come up with the solution. Most problem-solving scenarios have three focal points in instruction. The first is identifying the problem, or identifying that
there is a problem if you're a really young child. The second is problem explication and analysis. That's breaking that problem down into solvable steps, right? And then third is problem resolution.
So, as I said, very young children have a difficult time recognizing when there's a problem. Does that mean we don't do anything around this? No, but you just don't expect them to be very independent
in problem-solving early on. The really important thing is the second step. So immature problem-solvers tend to have what's called global attribution of solutions. So if a scenario where a middle
schooler has had a book stolen by a bully for the class, a language arts class he's going to. If you ask that middle schooler what the problem is, what you will get is attributions like, "Everyone
hates me," or, "John's a jerk." And those are part ... Well, I don't know that the "everyone hates me," but John being a jerk is part of the problem. There's just not much we can do about John's
jerkdom. His father's probably a jerk, probably a long history of jerkishness. It's probably genetics. I'm pretty sure there's a gene for jerkness, right? But what's the real problem that you can
solve? And, of course, bullying is not acceptable. And that's a problem that we need to be reporting and dealing with. But on the day-to-day basis, let's take the bullying out of it. The problem is
you don't have that book for the next class. So then, if you focus on that, you can begin to say, "Okay, maybe I don't need the book. I can go and find out whether we're going to use the book today.
And I can get it the next time," or, "Maybe I can borrow somebody else's book." So what you have to do is you begin to help kids narrow these things down so that their attributions become things that
they can deal with. And that's just a learning process. It's just having experience with problems. So don't start teaching problem-solving with trying to solve world peace or all these things.
There's lots of solvable problems in the world. And particularly as you hit middle school, make them relevant to things that are important in their lives. At the elementary level, we have some
fabulous drug and alcohol and tobacco awareness programs, Just Say No, D.A.R.E., those kinds of things. I don't think you can find a third grader in this country who will say that they will do drugs.
They're all on board with that. And, of course, it has absolutely no impact on actual use of alcohol, drugs and tobacco later on in life. It just doesn't stick. It's awareness. It raises awareness.
But it's not an intervention at that age that really has any implications. Any intervention that has evidence to show that it actually reduces alcohol, drug, tobacco or other risky behavior use has,
embedded in it, a problem-solving process. You're teaching kids to solve problems, to make decisions about what they're going to be doing. So tie these things to these kinds of discussions you're
having with junior high and middle school students around changes in their body and the opportunities to engage with substances and those kinds of things. There's lots of real-world issues that are
relevant to kids. And obviously, we have to create learning communities where kids feel free to fail because you don't get the right solution to the right problem. You've all had that professor or
that teacher who asks you some question and waits on the audience to answer. And nobody in the audience will answer because the last time somebody answered, that professor jumped all over them and
told what a stupid idea that was, blah, blah, blah. You got to create safe places for people to be able to say, "Well, I think it's this," because they're most likely going to be wrong. And that's a
safe place with peers. It's a safe place in what you do. So we've got to build learning communities that promote open inquiry and things. Promoting decision-making. So I mentioned decision. These are
complicated things. But we break down complicated things into discrete steps. And we teach them all the time. And I guarantee you there's not a kid in this country that I can't teach something to
engage them more in the decision-making process. It begins with the problem-solving process. If you don't know what your alternatives are, you identify what your alternatives for whatever you're
trying to make the decision about. Then there's a step of identifying, "What are the consequences of each of those alternatives or actions that you've identified." And then, "What are the probability
that each consequence will occur." So we, as adults, we're interested in protection and minimizing risk for our children and the students that we support. So we tend to treat everything as if the
potential consequences is life-ending or something, "You're going to wear that t-shirt? Oh, my god." My analogy used to be that if a kid goes out at lunch instead of spending lunch on food, they
spend it on a video game. Of course, nobody spends money on video games anymore. So I've got to come up with a better thing that they're spending it on. But they're spending their money, their lunch
money, on something other than lunch. Now what are the consequences of that? They might be hungry, right? They're probably going to bug and cage food from one of their buddies anyway, right? Now
let's switch to student B. Student B has diabetes and misses that meal. Very different consequences. And this consequential thinking is what typically developing adolescents need more work on.They
can come to the same decision, and they can identify the consequences, but they don't think it'll happen to them. And so even typically developing adolescents need to continue to work through these
sequences. So you've got your consequences, the probability of the consequences, and then you're looking at the importance to you of these things. So this is where decision-making differs from just
making a choice. You are systematically going through and, at one point, you can override what might be the "best" outcome because you have certain values, beliefs, or you just really need the little
red sports car. And you know that the green minivan is the better decision. But just sometimes in your life you need the little red sports car, right? So there's a preference aspect of this and a
values that gets incorporated into that.
>> I'm also thinking that I don't see, maybe it's coming later, but there's also work in teaching resilience that when it doesn't go the way you envisioned it, and it's option D, that wasn't even
there that you knew about, how you gracefully accept that or move on or transition and teaching kids that it's not the end of the world.
>> Yeah. It's in here. I don't use the term resilience because that's a literature that has sort of excluded kids with disabilities. One of the primary factors of most of the resilience models is
average or above average IQ, and I just don't believe it to be the case. But it's that issue of perseverance. I'll talk about it more under self-advocacy. Persevering, doing that. But it is very
>> I just think so many of our kids are kind of chronic inflexible ...
>> And have those issues.
>> And to have that instruction simultaneously with this ...
>> Would help them.
>> Right. And I'm not trying to capture every possible thing. Humor. I think, if you're a person with a disability in this country, you better develop a sense of humor because if you can't engage in
the world with humor, you're just going to have ulcers because this world is not ... So that would be something that I would look at. So there's lots of ways that you can go with this. And then the
final step in decision-making is just simply making a choice based upon all of that stuff. Again, the last part is an indicator of preference. Every kid can indicate a preference. So we can engage
young people in this process, doesn't matter how complicated. And honestly, most decisions are not so complicated that you can't fully engage people. And the point is not that people are independent
decision-makers. It's that young people are engaged and involved in all aspects of their life. Goal-setting, I've come to believe, is sort of at the center of these issues of promoting
self-determination. Goals motivate us to act. They define for us what's important. We need to teach goal-setting skills, teaching objectives. These aren't the kind of goals that we write on IEPs.
These are just the kinds of goals, you know, "I would like to work in a nursery home. What kinds of things do I need to get there? How can I" ... whatever. And how to identify and create an action
plan, and then really important is tracking progress toward your goal. And we can create self-monitoring processes that every kid in this country could use to track their own progress toward a goal.
And if there's no other thing that you're engaging kids in in the goal-setting, I think there ought to be something on every kid's IEP that it's their responsibility to track their progress to that
goal. And then it's up to you to identify how they do that because some kids don't do well with a checklist kind of thing. But there's lots of ways. We don't have time today to go into it
particularly, but we've written about it also. Self-advocacy, some of the skills you were talking about. What we want to be looking at is kind of getting kids in rights and responsibilities, but
assertiveness, aggressive, how to communicate effectively, negotiation, compromise, persuasion, effective listening, basic leadership and team skills, a whole host of things. And again, there's a
number of projects out there. Self-directed learning, student-directed learning, I'm not going to go through this. We know that engaging young people to self-regulate, to self-monitor, to engage in
activities is critical throughout life. It's going to be critical in the work. And we know that young people with disabilities can acquire these skills that enable them to do that, self-awareness and
self-understanding kinds of things. This is also some of the things you're talking about. What do you do well? How do you get yourself into places where you can take advantage of what you do well and
avoid what you don't do well? Individual differences. And then handling frustration and stress. Again, the experience of having a disability in our country is a very stressful and frustrating process
at times. And we need to give people strategies for dealing with that. I've talked already about student-directed learning, self-instruction, self-monitoring. There are data on a number of programs.
I've given you links to where some of these are commercially available and other links. Many of these are available for free. We do have data on evidence-based practices to promote student
involvement in educational planning and decision-making. Some of you will know the self-directed IEP stuff. That was an early thing, Jim Martin and stuff. If you aren't aware of this, he finally got
it back from the publisher. And now it's for free online on his Zarrow website. And there's lots of stuff. And in fact, that Zarrow website, if you just Google Zarrow Center University of Oklahoma,
there's lots of good stuff for promoting and enhancing self-determination. Measurement. Our Arc's Self-Determination Scale, the AIR Self-Determination Scale, the ChoiceMaker, all those are free and
available, again, on that OU website. We're developing a new measure. I will tell you, it's called the Self-Determination Inventory. We're norming it with all kids, including kids with disabilities
so that we can use it in the context of general education settings. It's a fully online assessment that has cognitively accessible features built in so that students should be able to do it. It's
about ready to go online. It'll be at self-determination.org. We purchased the URL. I mentioned the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction. I'm running out of time, so I'm not going to go into
great detail. Basically, we were struggling, "How do we teach teachers to teach students to teach themselves?" Most models of teaching teach teachers to teach students. And that's where it ends. We
wanted to be able to teach teachers how to teach students to teach themselves. So what the SDLMI is is a process that works through a couple features, student questions that students answer in order
to solve a problem. The problem in the first phase is, "What is my goal?" In the second phase is, "What is my plan?" And in the third phase is, "Have I learned what I need to learn?" The four
questions simply structure a problem-solving sequence. So students answer one, two, three, four. They solve the problem of, "What is my goal? What is my plan? Have I learned what I need to do?" There
are a set of teacher objectives that are linked to each student question, and they tell teachers exactly what it is that you, as the teacher, want to support and enable the student to do in answering
that question. So that's really the heart. The student questions get more play, but really the heart of it is these teacher objectives. You're using this as ways to answer questions. In fact, I think
I'll just zoom through here. So very quickly, the first phase to problem solve is, "What is my goal?" The questions are, "What do I want to learn? What do I know about it now? What must change for me
to learn what I don't know? And what can I do to make this happen?" Those are the student questions. Teachers go through, and they modify those questions to enable students to understand them.
Students can make up their own versions of that. They can't go directly to, "What is my goal?" That misses the whole point of the thing. So you have to stay with the questions. But you can modify
these to make it. Here are the teacher objectives. So, "What do I want to learn," enable students to identify specific strengths and instructional need, enable students to communicate preference,
interests, beliefs and values and teach students to prioritize needs. So you'll recognize a lot of that coming directly from the IDEA transition mandates. And then there's a set of educational
supports that teachers may need to use to provide instruction that would enable the student to answer the questions. So, for example, you get to the fourth question, "What can I do to make this
happen?" You've gone through this process. You've identified something you want to write a goal on. The teacher objective is to teach students to state a goal and identify criteria for achieving
goals. Student may never have written a goal. So you're going to have go in. And you're going to have to teach them how to do that goal. You solve the problem at the end of that of, "What is my
goal?" The problem in the second phase is, "What is my plan?" And same thing, four questions, teacher objectives, ends up with a plan and a self-monitoring process that you've created with the
student. The student begins tracking his or her data. And then we get to, "What have I learned?" So students go through. They answer these questions. They look at whether they're making adequate
progress. They're evaluating the self-monitoring data they've collected. If they're not making adequate progress, the first thing to do is they probably got the wrong plan. So you go back up. You
bolster your plan, or you create another plan. Eventually, though, messing with your plan doesn't seem to be doing anything. So you've probably written a goal that's not attainable. Now,
historically, what we would've had to do, as teachers, Johnny says, "I want to be an NBA star is my goal." So we're stuck with, "Oh, god. Sorry to be a dream-killer, Johnny, but you're not going to
be an NBA star, blah, blah, blah, blah, blah." Now we can just say, "All right. Let's go with this," and let Johnny figure out through this process. Because if you're not making progress after
adjusting your action plan, you go right back up, and you say, "Okay. Well, Johnny learns that this was not the right goal." And you can narrow that goal down, get in a rec basketball league,
whatever. So it's designed so that students should be 100 percent successful at achieving a goal. It's not necessarily the goal they started with. But it's a goal that they've been engaged with.
We've done this with hundreds and hundreds, thousands and thousands of students. We've done it with students in the first 3 years of elementary school. They needed a lot more support. The idea wasn't
that they're independent. Again, we're not trying to make students independent at this. They're at the center of the process. Whatever scaffolding to enable them to work through this is what you are
providing. We've developed a parents' form of this. It's just good parenting as well. It gives you a vehicle to do things. So it enhances motivation. Students are more engaged in goals that they've
helped set. I've got 30 seconds. I got to tell you this quick story, though. We were working with a young man in Plano, Texas, north of Dallas. This young man had a severe reputation. And so he was
known to kind of fly off the handle and become a little aggressive and this kind of stuff. So we were wanting to do this. When we teach students how to use the model, we start with a rec leisure goal
because they care about rec leisure issues. They don't care so much about math, science or reading. They'll get into that. So we teach students the process through a rec leisure goal. So we got into
this. And his teacher sort of hung back and kind of giggled and waited for us to fall flat on our face. And often that would be exactly what we would do. But in this case, he started off. And before
we even got into the first question, he says, "I want to be a storm chaser." So here we are. So you guys probably don't have as many storm chasers as we do. But in the Great Plains, we get a lot of
tornados. And there are a certain group of people who chase these things and film wall clouds. And there's a number of reasons he wasn't going to be a storm chaser. One, his parents were never going
to let him anywhere near wall clouds, right? He's still a minor. Secondly, this equipment's really expensive. You got to have a lot of leisure time and a lot of money to engage in this. And so
normally we would have had to start it off and say, "Well, blah, blah." But we said, "Let's go with this. This is where you're headed." Well, even before he got to the first, he knew he wasn't going
to be able to do this stuff. So even before we went through the first phase, he got to a point where we were looking at how he could do something similar. And he found out that there are storm chaser
clubs in the greater Dallas metropolitan area. So his goal was to become a member of the storm chaser club. The action plan was simply he would have to dial these things and check. And it was
self-monitoring. And he was checking that he dialed. And then he would evaluate his progress. Within 2 months, he was a member of a storm chaser club. Six months later, he was a valued member of this
club, got everything he wanted out of this. It was a perfect solution. And we would have never, ever, ever gone this direction had it not been him at the center of this thing. There are no Special
Olympics for storm chasing. It is not a place we would have gone. Personally, I'm scared to death of these ... Well, I've lived in the Great Plains long enough. I don't want to be near them though.
I'm not going to go chasing them. So it's the best we can do, I think, to stay and put the student in the center. We have evidence based that it has these impacts I talked about this morning. All
right. So to wrap things up ... Sweetest words in the English language. Yeah, not quite that though. In 1 minute. This is a website we've created, the National Gateway to Self-Determination,
ngsd.org. We've tried to create a one-stop shop, all you want around issues of self-determination. You can see that we have things for families, for people with disabilities, for professionals. One
of the really valuable things we have is we have more than 60 videos of people, youth and adults with disabilities, talking about why self-determination is important to them in any area you want to
talk about. And you can search by employment or by domain or by this. And they're there for you to use as you get out and you're talking about these things to illustrate. We have as many intervention
packages and interventions and supports and things that we can find. We've provided evidence on what evidence does exist, if there is evidence, so that you can make decisions about that. So we
continue to try to update this and to get as many things out there. So ngsd.org. Also, again, the Zarrow Center website is a really valuable thing. The Beach Center, where I work, we're going through
a complete revamping of our website. Soon, I will direct you that way. But right now, the old website is kind of a mess. So that's it. Thank you very much for the afternoon. I'll hang around a minute