Early identification and assessment of disabilities in children

Refers to the implementation of a formal plan for identifying a disability as early as possible in a child’s life.

Early Intervention

A collection of services and/or supports for eligible children from birth to the age of beginners, designed to provide stimulation and education.


Repeating exactly what someone else says. Example: The speaker says cat and the listener repeats the word cat.

Educational Assistance Program (EAP)

The EAP is a program for the school districts with the most severe academic challenges. These are the districts with at least one building that did not make school-wide Adequate Yearly Progress targets in reading or math.

Educational Coordinator

A liaison between the interdisciplinary healthcare team, including the family, and the school community.

Educational Interpreter

A professional member of an educational team who facilitates communication between deaf and hearing students within a school environment.

Effective Instruction

Research-based effective teaching principles include: active engagement of students, high success rates, increased content coverage, direct instruction by a teacher, carefully scaffolded instruction, instruction that addresses the critical forms of knowledge, instruction assisting in the organizing, storing, and retrieving of information, strategic instruction, explicit instruction, and instruction that teaches sameness across subjects.

Electroencephalogram (EEG

A non-invasive procedure in which electrodes are applied to the scalp to record the electrical waves of the brain. It is used to detect seizure activity, hematoma, tumor, or ventricle problems.

Electronic Magnification Systems

Machines that produce enlarged images, including closed-circuit televisions, computer systems, and low vision enhancement devices.

Embedded Skills

Embedded skills are general descriptions of the literacy and numeric skills assessed in each task.

Engaged Time

The time actually spent in learning activities; sometimes called time-on-task.

English as a Second Language (ESL) Program

English as a Second Language (ESL) is an educational approach in which English Language Learners (ELLs) are instructed in the use of the English language. Their instruction is based on a special curriculum that involves little or no use of the English language, focuses on language (as opposed to content), and is usually taught during specific school periods. For the rest of the school day, students remain in general education classrooms, an immersion program, or a bilingual program. Every bilingual education program has an ESL component. The acronym ESOL can sometimes be used instead of ESL. ESOL stands for English for speakers of other languages.

English Language Learners (ELLs)

ELLs are students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English. (See also LEP.) In Pennsylvania, a three-question Home Language Survey is used to identify those students who may be in need of ESL instruction. A yes answer to one or more questions means the student is given an assessment to determine the language services he or she may need. If identified as needing ESL instruction, the student may receive services in an ESL or bilingual program.

English Transliteration

a form of interpreting in which the language base remains the same (e.g. the transliteration of spoken English to a signed English system or to a form which can be read on the lips).

Environmental Control Unit

These are hardware and software systems that allow meaningful and purposeful interaction with the environment. These devices may include switch-activated toys and remote devices that control lights, small and large appliances, open windows and doors, etc.

Establishing Operation (Motivation)

An event that serves to either increase or decrease the effectiveness of a reinforcer for a student (e.g., thirst, hunger, desire to read a book, desire to get out of doing work, or desire for attention).


Process of collecting and analyzing data on various aspects of a program, usually for the purpose of program planning and goal setting, securing funding, improving processes and outcomes and allocating resources. Includes formative and summative evaluation

Evaluation Report (ER)

A report that summarizes the findings of the multidisciplinary evaluation and includes a determination of eligibility for early intervention services, as well as recommendations for supports if the child is found eligible.

Executive Functions

The higher-level functions, including planning, prioritizing, sequencing, self-monitoring, self-correcting, inhibiting, initiating, controlling, or altering behavior.

Exit Criteria

Criteria that determine when a child is no longer eligible for early intervention services. Eligibility ends when any of the following conditions are met: 1. The child has reached the age of beginner; 2. The child has functioned within the range of normal development for four months, with an IEP, and as verified by the IEP team; 3. The parent or guardian withdraws the child from early intervention for other reasons.

Explicit Instruction

Carefully designed activities and materials providing structure and supports to enable all students to make sense of new information and concepts. It includes providing students with many examples to illustrate a concept or strategy, utilizing multi-sensory techniques, modeling proficient performance expectations and thought processes, monitoring understanding, providing corrective feedback, and teaching to mastery.

Expressive Language

Language expression through speech, but it also includes gestures, sign language, use of a communication board, speech generating device, and other forms of expression.