GlossaryGlossary

D

Data Analysis Teaming


The use of grade level or student level teams to analyze student data and set grade-wide or student specific targets. ᅠ These teams monitor screening and progress monitoring data and may orchestrate student movement through tiers of intervention.



DCPM


Digits correct per minute



Deaf/Blind Interpreting


the act of describing an environment in addition to relaying salient information to and from the deaf/blind student. This service is delivered in a manner most comfortable to the student and can included visual frame signing, close vision signing, tracking, tactile signing, tactile finger spelling or short cut signs.



Decoding and Word Recognition


The ability to recognize words accurately, fluently, and independently is fundamental to reading in an alphabetic writing system. For kindergarten students, critical skills include learning to associate sounds with letters, using those associations to decode and read simple words, and learning to recognize important non-decodable words.



Degree of Hearing Loss


This refers to the classification of ranges of hearing acuity. Categories include: Normal = 0dB – 15dB; Mild = 16dB – 40dB; Moderate = 41dB – 60dB; Severe = 61dB – 80dB; Profound = 81dB or greater.



Developmental Delay


The situation where development is delayed compared with age peers. A learning disorder characterized by seriously impaired cognitive, communication, motor, social/emotional, or self-help development.



Developmental Delay


Development behind other children of the same age in achieving cognitive, adaptive, physical, communication, and social skills.



Device


A frequently used term for any assistive technology item



Differentiated Instruction


Proactively planning and providing alterations to curriculum, instruction and assessment that recognize students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, and interests. Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process. http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_diffinstruc.html ᅠ ᅠᅠ



Digital Accessible Information SYstem (DAISY)


DAISY is a standard for the production of print materials in an accessible digital format. It is a universal format for publishing and reading Digital Talking Books.



Digital Rights Management


Digital rights management refers to systems that are used to protect the copyrights of electronic media.



Digitized Speech


This is digitally stored human voices speaking actual words and sentences.



Direct Communication


in the field of deaf education, it is communication that occurs without an interpreter or transliterator.



Direct Instruction


Involves the organization of curricular content using modeling, scaffolding (providing strong support initially gradually reduced as the student gains independence), repetition, and frequent assessment taught through well-structured, briskly paced lessons with immediate error correction.



Direct Instruction (D/HH)


when instruction is delivered, received, and reciprocated by the teacher using the primary language of the learner who is Deaf/HH without the need of a third party (interpreter/transliterator) or medium (captioning).



Direct Selection


This is an access method in which the user indicates choices and makes selections by pointing with a body part or a technology tool.



Discrepant/Discrepancy


The comparison of an individual’s performance at a point of time to the performance of peers or other established standards at that same point in time. Given equal or enhanced opportunities, the student’s current level of performance is significantly different than typical peers or identified standards.



DPW


Department of Public Welfare, the agency responsible for provision of early interventions services from birth to three years of age.



Dynamic Display Scanning


A communication aid or computer display that changes after each selection and branches to additional communication selections.



Dysarthria


Errors in producing speech sounds, possibly because of muscle paralysis, muscle weakness, or poor co-ordination. The result may be distorted, substituted or omitted sounds, and typically involves more than a sound or two being in error.



Dyslexia


A specific language disorder characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. These difficulties are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities. They are not the result of generalized developmental disability or sensory impairment.